The key technology for in 3-D vitro engineered tissues is the establishment of vascular scaffolds. Today it is not yet possible to generate vascular structures resembling the typical organisation of mature blood vessels in vivo. In the past, significant progress has been made mainly in the development of tissue-like engineered products that are not dependent on a significant Ievel of vascular support, such as bioartificial cartilage and skin equivalents. The generation of adequate tissue substitutes of most other types of tissues require a functional vascular network for the supply of nutrients and the disposal of metabolites throughout a functional and growing tissue. Therefore, the generation of vascularised artificial tissues defines a challenging topic for future developments
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