Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Engaging with clinical supervision in a community midwifery setting: an action research study

By Ruth Deery


The main aim of this research study was to explore midwives’ views and experiences of their support needs in clinical practice and then to identify how they would wish to receive such support. There was much literature to support the existence of stress and burnout in midwifery but no research that addressed ways of alleviating this. Further aims were to redress that imbalance by planning and facilitating a model of clinical supervision devised by the participating midwives.\ud \ud The study took an action research approach that involved working with a group of eight National Health Service (NHS) community midwives in a collaborative, non-hierarchical and democratic way in order to achieve change. This accorded with a woman-centred approach to working with clients that was being encouraged within midwifery. The midwives were typical of many community-based midwives in the United Kingdom (UK) who were working in increasingly stressful, complex and changing environments. \ud \ud Wider organisational and cultural issues are considered that affect working relationships. The nature of the way the midwives worked when they were offered and received support, and how they reacted and coped when their work team and work situation was threatened, was also explored.\ud \ud Each midwife was interviewed twice; before and after the experience of clinical supervision. They also participated in two focus groups before clinical supervision. In-depth individual interviews lasted up to two hours, as did the focus groups. The interviews and the focus groups were taped, transcribed and then analysed using a relational voice-centred methodology.\ud \ud The main findings were that recent and ongoing change plus the organisational demands placed on the midwives by the NHS and their managers were detrimental to working relationships with their colleagues and clients. This also inhibited the process of change. A discourse of denigration became apparent within the interviews and the midwives behaviour and coping strategies revealed some well developed defence mechanisms, as well as an apparent lack of understanding on their part and that of their midwifery managers in relation to emotion work. Resistance to change was a key defence mechanism used by the midwives.\ud \ud Strong messages emerge about certain ‘performances’ being available to midwives and the use of defence mechanisms as a way of ‘getting the work done’. There are also messages about the cultural legacy of midwifery and how this can inhibit autonomous behaviour by midwives. Developing and increasing self awareness is still not viewed as being intrinsic to the work of the midwife and midwives are being asked to undertake a level of work that they have not been adequately prepared for. Neither do there appear to be effective role models for midwives. The bureaucratic pressures of working in a large maternity unit are also addressed where the system is seen as more important than the midwives

Topics: HQ, R1, RG
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (2001). A 'good enough' nurse: supporting patients in a fertility unit”,
  2. (1987). A caring dilemma: Womanhood and nursing in historical perspective",
  3. (1996). A case for clinical supervision in midwifery,"
  4. (1960). A case study in the functioning of social systems as a defence against anxiety: a report on a study of the nursing service of a general hospital",
  5. (2002). A collaborative approach to the implementation of clinical supervision”,
  6. (2002). A critical ethnographic approach to facilitating cultural shift in midwifery",
  7. (1998). A first class service: Quality in the new NHS,
  8. (2001). A Handbook for Action Research in Health and Social Care, Routledge in association with Taylor
  9. (1997). A practice-centred model of clinical supervision”,
  10. (1993). A review and integration of research on job burnout",
  11. (1986). A Savage Enquiry,
  12. (1986). A second look at mentors: do you really need one to succeed in nursing?"
  13. (1988). A Secure Base: Clinical Applications of Attachment Theory,
  14. (1974). A Sociology of Organisations, Allen and Unwin,
  15. (2000). A Three-way Relationship,"
  16. (1994). Accountable for what? New Thoughts on the Midwife/Mother Relationship",
  17. (1996). Achieving the indeterminate: accomplishing degrees of certainty in life and death situations”,
  18. (2000). Acting the part: Using drama to empower student midwives”,
  19. (1994). Action for Health: Marketing, Skill Mix, Campaigning, Health Visitors Association,
  20. (1996). Action research - A Handbook for Practitioners,
  21. (2001). Action Research and Postmodernism, congruence and critique, Harry Torrance, Series Editor,
  22. (1987). Action Research and the Politics of Educational Knowledge",
  23. (1991). Action Research for Educational Change: Developing Teachers and Teaching,
  24. (1995). Action Research for Health and Social Care: a guide to practice,
  25. (1995). Action research for professional practice",
  26. (2001). Action research from the inside: issues and challenges in doing action research in your own hospital,"
  27. (1997). Action research in health-care practice: Nature, present concerns and future possibilities”,
  28. (2000). Action Research in Organisations, Routledge with Taylor
  29. (2002). Action Research Principles and Practice, Second edn, Routledge/Falmer,
  30. (2002). Action research project responding to midwives’ views of different methods of fetal monitoring in labour”,
  31. (2000). Action research to improve the pre-registration midwifery curriculum – Part 1: an appropriate methodology,”
  32. (1981). Action research: a framework for self-evaluation in schools. TIQL Working Paper No 1”,
  33. (2001). Action research: a systematic review and guidance for assessment,
  34. (1989). Action research: philosophy, methods and personal experiences",
  35. (2002). Action research: politics, ethics and participation",
  36. (1988). Action Research: Principles and Practice,
  37. (1993). Action research: what is it? How has it been used and how can it be used in nursing?"
  38. (1985). An analysis of an individual's educational development,"
  39. (1992). An analysis of the changes involved in the introduction of the nursing process and primary nursing using a theoretical framework of loss and attachment."
  40. (1999). An ethnographic study of women's experience of partnership caseload midwifery practice - the professional as friend",
  41. (1996). An Ex-Midwife's Reflections on Supervision from a Psychotherapeutic Viewpoint.,"
  42. (1997). An exploration of John Heron’s confronting interventions within supervision: case studies from practice”, Psychiatric Care,
  43. (1998). An historical perspective on clinical supervision in nursing",
  44. (1975). An introduction to curriculum research and development,
  45. (1999). An Introduction to Groupwork. A GroupAnalytic Perspective,
  46. (1998). An Outsider Within: A Feminist Doing Research with Men,”
  47. (1991). Anxiety and the Dynamics of Collaboration,
  48. (1992). Anxiety, accuracy and reflection: the limits of professional development”,
  49. (1999). Are focus groups an appropriate tool for studying organizational change?,"
  50. (1994). Asking for help," in The unconscious at work. Individual and organizational stress in the human services.,
  51. (1995). Association of Radical Midwives (ARM)
  52. (1980). Attachment and Loss,
  53. (1995). Audit of Supervision of Midwives in the North West Regional Health Authority, Salford Royal Hospitals NHS Trust,
  54. (2000). Audit of Supervision of Midwives: England 1997-7,"
  55. (1996). Auditing Supervision: An Example of One Audit and General Issues Concerning Audit,"
  56. (1997). Authoritative Knowledge and Its Construction," in Childbirth and Authoritative Knowledge. Cross-Cultural Perspectives,
  57. (1997). Balancing Engagement and Detachment in Caregiving”, Image:
  58. (1986). Becoming Critical: Education Knowledge and Action Research.
  59. (1952). Behavioural Patterns in Early Meetings of Therapeutic groups”,
  60. (1981). Behind the Blue Door: The History of the Royal College of Midwives 1881-1981
  61. (1989). Between Psychology and Psychotherapy: a poetic of experience,
  62. (1987). Between Women. Love, Envy & Competition in Women's Friendships,
  63. (1993). Big Sister is Watching You",
  64. (1992). Birth as an American Rite of Passage,
  65. (2003). Birth Centres. A Social Model for Maternity Care, Book for Midwives,
  66. (1995). Burnout and midwifery: an occupational hazard?"
  67. (1991). Can There Be a Feminist Ethnography?” In Women’s Words: The Feminist Practice of Oral History,
  68. (1992). Care = organisation + physical labour + emotional labour",
  69. (2000). Caring for women: the potential contribution of formal theory to practice”,
  70. (1999). Caring labor",
  71. (1983). Caring: A labour of love,"
  72. (2000). Changes in Maternity Policy - Who, What and Why?,"
  73. (1993). Changing Childbirth”,
  74. (2001). Changing faces: nurses as emotional jugglers”,
  75. (1995). Changing Methods: Feminists Transforming Practice,
  76. (1999). Changing scripts at work: managers and professionals”,
  77. (2002). Checking not listening: how midwives cope”,
  78. (1997). Choice in the face of uncertainty," in Reflections
  79. (1995). Choice, continuity and control: changing midwifery, towards a sociological perspective",
  80. (1999). Clinical Governance,
  81. (2002). Clinical group supervision in an intensive care unit: a space for relief, and for sharing emotions and experiences of care”,
  82. (1996). Clinical Guidelines,
  83. (1998). Clinical supervision and community psychiatric nursing”
  84. (1998). Clinical supervision as an alternative approach to supporting midwives",
  85. (1998). Clinical supervision as an emerging idea in nursing,"
  86. (1994). Clinical supervision for an accountable profession",
  87. (1997). Clinical supervision for forensic mental health Nurses”,
  88. (1995). Clinical Supervision for Nursing and Health Visiting,
  89. (1998). Clinical Supervision in Practice. Some questions, answers and guidelines,
  90. (1993). Clinical Supervision: a Position Paper,
  91. (1975). Collaborative Interviewing and Interactive Research",
  92. (1998). Collecting and analysing qualitative data: issues raised by the focus group”,
  93. (2002). Commissioning midwifery education and training, Tools to guide good practice,
  94. (1989). Community Midwifery,
  95. (1991). Competing occupational ideologies, identities, and the practice of nurse-midwifery”,
  96. (1998). Continuing to Care, the Organisation of Midwifery Services in the UK: a Structured Review of the Evidence, Books for Midwives Press,
  97. (1994). Coping with labour pain: the midwife's role," in Midwives,
  98. (1989). Creating a Living educational theory from Questions of the Kind "How do I improve my practice?"",
  99. (2001). Critical reflection for nursing and the helping professions, a user's guide,
  100. (1973). Cross-cultural studies of facial expression," in Darwin and facial expression: A century of research
  101. (1991). Curriculum Action Research: A Handbook of Methods and Resources for the Reflective Practitioner, 2nd edn,
  102. (2001). Defining normal birth”,
  103. (1999). Developing Focus Group Research,
  104. (2002). Developing midwifery practice through action research",
  105. (1998). Differences in midwives' approaches to pain relief in labour",
  106. (1994). Difficult patients and challenging situations," in Basics of Group Psychotherapy,
  107. (1962). Diffusion of Innovations,
  108. (2001). Dilemmas of Self in the Method",
  109. (1999). Do focus groups facilitate meaningful participation in social research?"
  110. (1999). Doing action research in my own organization: ethical dilemmas, hopes and triumphs”,
  111. (2001). Doing Action Research in Your Own Organization,
  112. (2002). Doing qualitative research differently. Free association, narrative and the interview method,
  113. (1991). Doing Qualitative Research: Circles Within Circles, The Falmer Press Teachers Library,
  114. (1970). Domicilary Midwifery and Maternity Bed Needs: Report of the SubCommittee,
  115. (1985). Educational action research: some general concerns and specific quibbles,”
  116. (1987). Educational theory, practical philosophy and action research”,
  117. (1989). Effective Care in Pregnancy and Childbirth,
  118. (1995). Effective Group Practice in Midwifery: Working
  119. (1982). Effectiveness and Satisfaction in Antenatal Care”,
  120. (1993). Effects of psychological prejudices on communication and social interaction",
  121. (2000). Emotion in Organizations, 2nd edn., Sage publications,
  122. (2000). Emotion Metaphors in Management: The Chinese Experience,"
  123. (2001). Emotion work in midwifery: a review of current knowledge",
  124. (2002). Emotion Work in Midwifery: An ethnographic study of the emotional work undertaken by a sample of student and qualified midwives in Wales, Unpublished PhD thesis,
  125. (1979). Emotion Work, Feeling Rules, and Social Structure",
  126. (1996). Emotional Intelligence,
  127. (2001). Emotional labor and nursing: an under-appreciated aspect of caring work",
  128. (1993). Emotional Labor in Service Roles: The Influence of Identity",
  129. (1999). Emotional labour and burnout among mental health professionals”,
  130. (1989). Emotional labour: skill and work in the social regulation of feelings",
  131. (1995). Ethnography: principles in practice, 2nd edn,
  132. (1995). Evaluating and developing practitioner research,"
  133. (1998). Evaluating the Efficacy of Reflective Practice Within the Context of Clinical Supervision",
  134. (1998). Evaluation of one-to-one midwifery: Women’s responses to care”,
  135. (1997). Evidence to the Review Body for Nursing Staff, Midwives, Health Visitors and Professionals Allied to Medicine for 1997, Royal College of Midwives,
  136. (1990). Evolving a Midwifery Philosophy",
  137. (2000). Experiments in Knowing:
  138. (2002). Expert supervisors' views of clinical supervision: a study of factors promoting and inhibiting the achievements of multiprofessional team supervision",
  139. (1998). Exploring the need for and value of clinical supervision within the midwifery profession, Unpublished dissertation, West Yorkshire College inservice Scheme in association with
  140. (2001). Exploring the Relevance of Critical Theory for Action Research: Emancipatory Action Research in the Footsteps of JÜrgen Habermas”,
  141. (2002). Feeling Safe Enough To Let Go: The Relationship Between a Woman and her
  142. (1998). Feminist Dilemmas in Qualitative Research. Public Knowledge and Private Lives,
  143. (1991). Feminist Groupwork,
  144. (1992). Feminist methods in social research,
  145. (1990). Feminist praxis and the academic mode of production: an editorial introduction,”
  146. (1951). Field theory in social science,
  147. (1997). Focus Group Data and Qualitative Analysis Programs: Coding the Moving Picture as Well as the Snapshots",
  148. (1995). Focus Groups and Ethnography”,
  149. (2001). Focus groups as a research method: a critique of some aspects of their use in nursing",
  150. (1997). Focus Groups as Qualitative Research, 2nd edn,
  151. (1989). Fourth Generation Evaluation,
  152. (1974). Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience,
  153. (1983). Freedom to Learn for the 80s,
  154. (2002). Freedom to Practise. The Development of Patientcentred Nursing,
  155. (1988). Friend or watchdog?"
  156. (1999). From exploring practice to exploring inquiry: a practitioner researcher's experience, Unpublished PhD thesis,
  157. (1994). From juggling to balancing",
  158. (1978). Fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing",
  159. (1995). Gender and the Professional Predicament in Nursing,
  160. (1994). Giving support in pregnancy: the role of research midwives in a randomised controlled trial”, in Midwives,
  161. (1982). Good and bad patients a review of the literature and theoretical critique”,
  162. (1999). Group clinical supervision in district nursing",
  163. (1984). Hard earned lives: Accounts of health and illness from East London,
  164. Health (1993b) A Vision for the Future: The Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting Contribution to Health and Health Care,
  165. Health (1999a) Saving lives: our healthier nation, The Stationery Office,
  166. Health (1999b) Making a Difference: Strengthening the nursing, midwifery and health visiting contribution to health and healthcare,
  167. (1996). Health Care Partnerships. Debates and Strategies for increasing patient involvement in health care and health services, King's Fund
  168. (1999). Hearing Midwives' Views": Focus Groups on
  169. (1991). Helping the Client: A Creative Practical Guide,
  170. (1996). How can clinical supervision become a real vision for the future?"
  171. (2000). How Can We Relate?”
  172. (2000). How do I improve my practice? Creating and legitimating an epistemology of practice",
  173. (1983). How do we do what we want to do: Thoughts about feminist methodology.," in Theories of women's studies,
  174. (1989). Human caring and suffering: a subjective model for health sciences," in They Shall Not Hurt: Human Suffering and Human Caring,
  175. (1999). Idealised Caring: The Heart of Nursing,"
  176. (1999). Improving relationships through clinical supervision: 1",
  177. (1999). Improving relationships through clinical supervision: 2",
  178. (1998). Improving the health of the NHS; Report of the partnership on the health of the NHS workforce, London: Nuffield Trust,
  179. (1985). In a Different Voice: psychological theory and women’s development,
  180. (1988). In Search of Subjectivity - One's Own",
  181. (1996). In the Patient's Interest. Multi-Professional Working Across Organisational Boundaries. A Report by the Standing Medical and Nursing and Midwifery Advisory Committee,
  182. (2000). Incurably Human,
  183. (2001). Informed Choice in Maternity Care: An Evaluation of Evidence Based Leaflets, Women’s Informed Childbearing and Health research group,
  184. (1967). Interaction Ritual, Essays on Face-To-Face Behavior, Anchor Books,
  185. (1993). Interpreting qualitative data: Methods for analysing talk, text and interaction, Sage publications,
  186. (1989). Interviewing - An "Unnatural Situation"?",
  187. (1999). Interviewing for Social Scientists, Sage
  188. (1981). Interviewing women: a contradiction in terms," in Doing Feminist Research,
  189. (1992). Interviewing Women: Issues of Friendship, Vulnerability, and Power",
  190. (1996). InterViews, An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing.
  191. (1997). Intuition as Authoritative Knowledge
  192. (1986). Invisible care and invisible women as health care-providers",
  193. (1989). Issues of reliability and validity,"
  194. (1997). It is Good to Talk: An Evaluation Study in England and
  195. (1985). Jurgen Habermas,”
  196. (1994). Knowing your midwife: how easy is it?"
  197. (1972). Knowledge and Human Interests,
  198. (1993). Kurt Lewin and the Origins of Action Research",
  199. (1998). Labour ward midwives' perceptions of stress",
  200. (2002). Language use in antenatal consultations”,
  201. (1984). Learning from Experience, 2nd edn.,
  202. (1989). Learning from Experience: Principles and Practice in Actionresearch,
  203. (1988). Leininger's theory of nursing: cultural care diversity and universality",
  204. (1999). Liberating Method: Feminism and Social Research,
  205. (1986). Loss and Change,
  206. (1991). Maintaining norms about expressed emotions: The case of bill collectors",
  207. (1997). Making sense of 'horizontal violence' in midwifery",
  208. (1996). Making sense of qualitative data: Complementary research strategies, Sage publications,
  209. (1983). Management Enquiry, The Griffiths Report,
  210. (1993). Mapping Team Midwifery.
  211. (2000). Metaphor and emotion - language, culture, and body in human feeling,
  212. (1993). Metaphor, language, and thought,"
  213. (1980). Metaphors We Live By,
  214. (1995). Midwifery – a matter of politics” in Issues
  215. (2002). Midwifery and public health",
  216. (1995). Midwifery graduates in the United Kingdom” in Issues
  217. (1993). Midwifery Teams and Caseloads,
  218. (1997). Midwives and Debriefing,” in Reflections
  219. (1989). Midwives and Information Giving During Labour,"
  220. (1998). Midwives and the New NHS, Paper Two: Clinical Governance, Royal College of Midwives,
  221. (1997). Midwives coping: thinking about change," in Reflections on
  222. (1995). Midwives eat their young, don't they?"
  223. (1991). Midwives in Hospital: Work, Emotion and the Labour Process, Unpublished PhD thesis,
  224. (1998). Midwives rules and code of practice,
  225. (1993). Midwives Rules,
  226. (1997). Midwives' burnout and continuity of care",
  227. (2000). Midwives' support needs as childbirth changes",
  228. (1995). Models for Action Research," in Moving On: Creative applications of action learning and action
  229. (1995). Models of clinical supervision",
  230. (1984). Moderated Love: A Theology of Professional Care,
  231. (1970). Motivation and Personality, 2nd edn.,
  232. (2000). Moving from hierarchy to collaboration: The birth of an action research project",
  233. (1997). Narrating the Organization, Dramas of Institutional Identity,
  234. (1993). Narrative Analysis,
  235. (1996). Narratives of becoming an action researcher",
  236. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry Sage Publications,
  237. (1993). New paradigm research in practice: the trials and tribulations of action research",
  238. (1998). Notes from a Method",
  239. (1967). Notes on Help-rejecting Complainers,”
  240. (1995). Nurses' perceptions of the elements of good supervision",
  241. (1991). Nursing as Therapy,
  242. (1995). Nursing Intimacy: An Ethnographic Approach to Nurse-Patient Interaction,
  243. (1995). Nursing Replay: Researching Nursing Culture Together,
  244. (1996). Nursing research: The application of qualitative approaches, 2nd edn,
  245. (1996). Nursing, Midwifery & Health Visiting (ENB)
  246. (1985). Nursing: The Philosophy and
  247. (1999). Obstetric Metaphors and Marketing",
  248. (1998). Occupational burnout in midwives: new ways of working and the relationship between organisational factors and psychological health and well being", Risk Decision and Policy,
  249. (1967). On Becoming a Person: A Therapist's View of Psychotherapy,
  250. (1991). On being a trainer," in Training and Supervision for Counselling
  251. (1971). On Caring, Harper and Row,
  252. (1984). On Death and Dying,
  253. (1985). On Learning From The Patient,
  254. (1994). One-to-one midwifery practice",
  255. (1983). Oppressed group behaviour: implications for nursing",
  256. (2001). Organisation and Management,"
  257. (1980). Organization Change and Development: A Systems View,
  258. (1994). Participation in Human Inquiry,
  259. (1991). Participatory Action Research,
  260. (1995). Partnership nursing: influences on involvement of informal carers”,
  261. (2002). Partnership: an analysis of the concept within the nurse-client relationship",
  262. (1995). Passionate Enquiry and School Development,
  263. (1996). Patient Partnership: Building a Collaborative Strategy,
  264. (1958). Personal Knowledge, Towards a Post-Critical Philosophy, Routledge &
  265. (1993). Perspectives on critical and feminist theory in developing nursing praxis",
  266. (2002). Perspectives on stand-alone midwifery-led/GP units since 1970 – resisting bureaucratisation and obstetric hegemony”, Paper presented at Birthing and Bureaucracy:
  267. (1998). Philosophical and theoretical underpinnings of research," in Research into Practice,
  268. (1991). Piggy in the middle: The midwife's role in achieving woman-controlled childbirth",
  269. (1998). Planning Focus Groups, Focus Group Kit 2, Sage publications,
  270. (2000). Poor Relations:
  271. (1996). Position Statement on Clinical Supervision for Nursing and Health Visiting,
  272. (1994). Postmodernism and Education,
  273. (2002). Postmodernism and Social Research,
  274. (1999). Poverty and Health. Report by the Director-General., World Health Organisation,
  275. (1996). Power and caring: a dialectic in nursing",
  276. (1982). Power and the Profession of Obstetrics,
  277. (1991). Power in Caring Professions,
  278. (1999). Power, Politics and Organizational Change: Winning the Turf Game,
  279. (1990). Power, Politics and Pregnancy, Health Rights Ltd.,
  280. (2002). Practice and autonomy”
  281. (1995). Practitioner Research in Health Care: The Inside Story,
  282. (1994). Practitioner researchers should not permit a training in educational research methodology to dominate their creativity in the construction of their own living educational theories”, Paper presented at BERA Practitioner Researcher Workshop,
  283. (2003). Praiseworthy pragmatism? Validity and action research”,
  284. (1969). Professional closeness",
  285. (1992). Professional Development in Higher Education: A Theoretical Framework for Action Research,
  286. (1993). Professional Supervision",
  287. (1992). Professions and Patriarchy,
  288. (1999). Protective Steering: a grounded theory study of the processes involved when midwives facilitate informed choice in pregnancy",
  289. (2000). Psychodynamic understanding: Its use and abuse in midwifery”,
  290. (1991). Psychological Processes of Childbearing,
  291. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook, Sage publications,
  292. (2002). Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods, 3rd edn,
  293. (2000). Qualitative research from a feminist perspective in the postmodern era: methodological, ethical and reflexive concerns",
  294. (1999). Qualitative Research in Health, an introduction,
  295. (1999). Qualitative Research in Health. An Introduction,
  296. (1985). Qualitative Research Methods
  297. (2000). Quite a Healthy Exercise": Follow-up Focus Groups on
  298. (1998). Reading Birth and Death. A History of Obstetric Thinking,
  299. (1989). Real Feelings": Emotional Expression and Organizational Culture",
  300. (1996). Reassessing the Guilty: The Midwives Act and the
  301. (1998). Reconceptualizing rigour: the case for reflexivity”,
  302. (1997). Reflection in midwifery: professional narcissism or seeing with women?"
  303. (1998). Reflections on a Voice-centred Relational Method. Analysing Maternal and Domestic Voices,"
  304. (1999). Reflective practice and guided discovery: clinical supervision”,
  305. (1990). Reflexivity and Emotion",
  306. (1994). Rehabilitation program evaluation: use of focus groups to empower clients",
  307. (1968). Report of Committee on Local Authority and Personal and Social Services,
  308. (1995). Research and the Teacher. A Qualitative Introduction to School-based Research, 2nd edn.,
  309. (2000). Research Implementation,"
  310. (1991). Research Interviewing: Context and Narrative,
  311. (1994). Research Methods in Education, Fourth edn,
  312. (1993). Research partnerships: collaborative action research in nursing",
  313. (1994). Rethinking the Principles and Practice of Action research: the tensions for the teacher-researcher",
  314. (1999). Review of the United Kingdom Evaluative Literature on Clinical Supervision in Nursing and Health Visiting,
  315. (1996). Royal College of Midwives (RCM)
  316. (1998). Safer Childbirth? - a critical history of maternity care, 2nd edn, Free Association,
  317. (1990). Safer childbirth? A Critical History of Maternity Care,
  318. (1980). Second Report from the Social Services Maternity Committee: Perinatal and Neonatal Mortality,
  319. (1992). Second Report on the Maternity Services by the Health Services Select Committee,
  320. (2000). Seeing Anew: Understanding Professional Practice as Artistry,"
  321. (1985). Self-labeling Processes in Mental Illness: The Role of Emotional Deviance”,
  322. (1986). Sensitive Midwifery,
  323. (1982). Sentimental work in the technologized hospital",
  324. (2002). Silence and time in antenatal care”,
  325. (1998). Skills of Clinical Supervision for Nurses: A practical guide for supervisees, clinical supervisors and managers.
  326. (2000). Social Perspectives on Pregnancy and Childbirth for Midwives, Nurses and the Caring Professions,
  327. (2001). Social research Update 19: Focus Groups.
  328. (1991). Social Science and the Self: Personal Essays on an Art Form,
  329. (2003). Solutions forgone? How health professionals frame the problem of postnatal depression”,
  330. (1994). Some unconscious aspects of organizational life. Contributions from psychoanalysis,"
  331. (1974). Staff burnout”,
  332. (2001). Statistical Analysis of the UKCC Professional Register
  333. (2002). Stereotyping as a professional defence mechanism”,
  334. (1993). Strain among nurses and their emotional reactions during 1 year of systematic clinical supervision combined with the implementation of individualised care in dementia nursing”,
  335. (1980). Street-Level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Services,
  336. (1984). Stress, Appraisal and Coping,
  337. (2000). Stronger leadership is needed before we can ‘own’ change”,
  338. (1994). Super-Vision, a contribution to the debate",
  339. (1994). Supervising the Counsellor - a cyclical model,
  340. (1998). Supervision for life”
  341. (1989). Supervision in the caring professions: a literature review",
  342. (1989). Supervision in the Helping Professions,
  343. (1996). Supervision of Midwives,
  344. (1992). Supervision versus control: can managers provide both managerial and professional supervision?"
  345. (1986). Supervision",
  346. (1998). Supporting Practitioner Research",
  347. (2001). Supportive Care and Midwifery, Blackwell Science,
  348. (2000). Symphysis-fundal height measurement in pregnancy (Cochrane Review), The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, Oxford, Updated software, Level II Evidence.
  349. (2002). Taking Curiosity Seriously: the role of awe and Wanda in researchbased professionalism",
  350. (1993). Taking it personally: a note on emotion and autobiography",
  351. (1990). Talking and Listening from Women's Standpoint: Feminist Strategies for Interviewing and Analysis",
  352. (1995). Talking From 9 to 5. How women's and men's conversational styles affect who gets heard, who gets credit, and what gets done at work,
  353. (1993). Teaching as Learning: an Action Research Approach,
  354. (1999). Team midwifery and burnout in midwives in the UK: practical lessons from a national study",
  355. (1995). Team Midwifery," in Effective Group Practice
  356. (1998). Team Midwifery: the views and job satisfaction of midwives",
  357. (1989). The 'Know your Midwife Scheme' - a randomised trial of continuity of care by a team of midwives",
  358. (1982). The Action Research Planner, First edn.,
  359. (1988). The Action Research Planner, Third edn.,
  360. (2000). The analysis of focus group data: A challenge to the rigour of qualitative research",
  361. (1996). The Anti-Group. Destructive forces in the group and their creative potential,
  362. (1995). The art of clinical supervision",
  363. (2000). The Bullying Culture: Cause, Effect, Harm Reduction,
  364. (1984). The Captured Womb: A History of the Medical Care of Pregnant Women, 2nd edn,
  365. (2000). The Challenge of Caring Relationships,"
  366. (1997). The challenge of change in the organisation of midwifery care," in Challenges
  367. (1964). The Child, the Family and the Outside World,
  368. (1993). The contemporary theory of metaphor,"
  369. (1994). The Contribution of Action Research to Development in Social Endeavours: a position paper on action research methodology", BERA Practitioner Research Workshop,
  370. (1994). The costs and some benefits of clinical supervision: an initial exploration”,
  371. (2000). The culture of 'culture' in National Health Service policy implementation",
  372. (1999). The culture of midwifery in the National Health Service in England",
  373. (1998). The development of guidelines on clinical supervision in clinical practice settings”, in Clinical Supervision
  374. (1979). The Dignity of Labour? A Study of Childbearing and Induction,
  375. (1996). The Dimensions, Antecedents, and Consequences of Emotional Labor",
  376. (1967). The Discovery of Grounded Theory,
  377. (2001). The Early Mothering Project: What Happened When the Words ‘Action Research’ Came to Life for a Group of Midwives”,
  378. (1992). The Emotional Labour of Nursing,
  379. (1988). The Emotional Labour of Nursing",
  380. (1995). The essence of nurse-midwifery care: the woman’s story”,
  381. (1985). The Fat Black Woman’s Poems,
  382. (1998). The Focus Group Kit,
  383. (1979). The Functioning of Social Systems as a Defence Against Anxiety, The Tavistock Institute of Human Relations,
  384. (1994). The future of professional practice. The council's standards for education and practice following registration,
  385. (1993). The Growth of Educational Knowledge: creating your own living educational theories,
  386. (1998). The Handbook for Focus Group Research, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks.
  387. (1992). The Health Committee Second Report:
  388. (1965). The Human Side of Human Beings: The Theory of Re-evaluation Counselling,
  389. (1998). The importance of mess in action research",
  390. (1997). The Invisible Mender,
  391. (1995). The Law and the Midwife,
  392. (2000). The Less We Do, the More We Give',"
  393. (1993). The Limits of the Professional Imagination,"
  394. (1983). The Managed Heart. Commercialisation of Human Feeling
  395. (2001). The Management of Change,"
  396. (1994). The methodology of Focus Groups: the importance of interaction between research participants",
  397. (2000). The Midwife: A Professional Servant?"
  398. (1993). The Midwife's Tale: An Oral History from Handywoman to Professional Midwife
  399. (2000). The Midwifery Partnership in New Zealand: Past History or a New Way Forward?"
  400. (1992). The Named Midwife,
  401. (2000). The New Midwifery, Science and Sensitivity in Practice,
  402. (2000). The NHS Plan: A Plan for investment, a plan for reform,
  403. (1997). The Organisation of Maternity Care: A Guide to Evaluation Hochland & Hochland,
  404. (1990). The organisation of midwifery care" in Antenatal Care. A ResearchBased Approach,
  405. (1994). The Patient's Charter,
  406. (1972). The Pedagogy of the Oppressed,
  407. (1997). The Physiology and Clinical Management of Labour,"
  408. (1998). The place of metaphor and language in exploring nurses' emotional work",
  409. (1976). The Planning of Change,
  410. (1997). The pocket guide to Clinical Supervision.
  411. (1992). The power of words”,
  412. (1977). The Practice of Supervision in Social Work, Ward Lock Educational,
  413. (1990). The presentation of self in everyday life,
  414. (1995). The proper focus of nursing: a critique of the “caring” ideology”,
  415. (1998). The Reality Game. A Guide to Humanistic Counselling and Psychotherapy, Second edn, Routledge & Kegan Paul,
  416. (1995). The recent health reforms in the United Kingdom: some tentative observations on their impact on nurses and nursing in hospitals",
  417. (1983). The Reflective Practitioner,
  418. (2000). The Rhetoric of Midwifery, Gender, Knowledge and Power,
  419. (1995). The role of clinical supervision in mental health practice”,
  420. (2002). The role of ritualistic ceremonial in removing barriers between subcultures in the National Health Service",
  421. (1990). The role of teacher researcher," in Managing Staff Development
  422. (1994). The self-assigned impossible task," in The unconscious at work. Individual and organizational stress in the human services.,
  423. (1989). The significance of primary nursing",
  424. (1995). The Social Meaning of Midwifery,
  425. (1996). The Southampton randomised controlled trial of breast shells and Hoffman's exercises for inverted and non-protractile nipples,"
  426. (1998). The supervisory relationship,"
  427. (2001). The technocratic, humanistic and holistic paradigms of childbirth”,
  428. (1995). The Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy, 4th edn, Basic Books. A Member of the Perseus Books Group.,
  429. (1960). The theory of the parent-infant relationship,"
  430. (2000). The third way: A realistic plan to reinvent the profession”,
  431. (1996). The UKCC Perspective: The Statutory Basis for the Supervision of Midwives Today,"
  432. (1994). The unconscious at work: Individual and organisational stress in the human services,
  433. (1995). The value of reflective practice for nursing”,
  434. (1997). Themes and tensions in US action research: Towards historical analysis”
  435. (1986). Theories of theory and practice”,
  436. (1988). Therapeutic nursing,"
  437. (2001). Thoughts on Science, RCTs and Midwifery Knowledge",
  438. (1968). Time for Dying,
  439. (1997). Too much like school: social class, age, marital status and attendance/non-attendance at antenatal classes”,
  440. (1990). Towards a psychology of caring”,
  441. (2002). Towards a social model of childbirth: part one”,
  442. (1999). Towards Emotional Literacy,
  443. (1986). Training Behaviour Therapists: Methods, Evaluation and Implementation with Parents, Nurses and Teachers.
  444. (1995). Transformative ‘cultural shifts’ in nursing: participatory action research and the ‘project of possibility’”,
  445. (2001). Transforming Lives: Towards Bicultural Competence”
  446. (1994). Transforming qualitative data: Description, analysis and interpretation. Sage publications,
  447. (1986). Treatment of umbilical cords: a randomised trial to assess the effect of treatment methods on the work of midwives",
  448. (1987). Truth or Dare, Encounters with Power, Authority, and Mystery,
  449. (1999). Understanding clinical supervision from a nursing perspective”,
  450. (1993). Understanding Organisations,
  451. (2001). Uneven Ground: Feminisms and Action Research”
  452. (2001). Using groups to Help People, 2nd edn,
  453. (1995). Using interviews in qualitative research",
  454. (2000). Vision
  455. (2002). Watching the clock: keeping time during pregnancy and birth and postpartum experiences”,
  456. (1993). Weaving Stories: Personal Auto/Biographies in Feminist Research",
  457. (1994). What comes (just) after ‘post’? the case of ethnography”,
  458. (1995). What is good action research?”
  459. (1994). What's really going on here? Making sense of our emotional lives,
  460. (1998). When Emotion Work is Doomed to Fail: Ideological and Structural
  461. (1987). When gender is not enough: Women interviewing women”,
  462. (2002). Where’s the midwifery in midwife-led care?”
  463. (1989). Who Cares for Women? Science versus Love in Midwifery Today",
  464. (2000). Who cares? Offering emotion work as a 'gift' in the nursing labour process",
  465. (2002). Why Do Midwives Leave? The Royal College of Midwives,
  466. (1997). Willing handmaidens of science? The struggle over the new midwife in early twentieth-century England,"
  467. (2000). Woman-centred Midwifery: Partnerships or Professional Friendships?"
  468. (1980). Women Confined: Towards a Sociology of Childbirth,
  469. (1998). Women-with-midwives-with-women: a model of interdependence",
  470. (1996). Women's experience of the encounter with the midwife during childbirth",
  471. (1986). Women's Ways of Knowing. The Development of Self, Voice, and Mind, BasicBooks, A Subsidiary of Perseus Books,
  472. (1989). Working for Patients,
  473. (1996). You and Your Action Research Project,
  474. (1990). You Just Don't Understand. Women and Men in Conversation.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.