Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Tackling the Demand for Prostitution: A Rapid Evidence Assessment of the published research literature

By Aidan Wilcox, Kris Christmann, Michelle Rogerson and Philip Birch


Researchers from the University of Huddersfield were commissioned to conduct a Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA) of the published research literature in a selected number of countries, including the United Kingdom (UK) to answer specific questions about the characteristics of the people who procure sex, the context and setting for procuring sex, the related reasons, drivers and motivations and what has been tried elsewhere to deter or hinder those who procure sex and what works in tackling demand for prostitution

Topics: H1, HN
Publisher: Home Office
Year: 2009
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (2003). 5th Report, stage 1, Report on the Prostitution Tolerance Zones (Scotland) Bill. Great Britain Scottish Parliament Local Government Committee 231.Scotland: Stationery Office.
  2. (1998). A brief psychoeducational program for men who patronize prostitutes’,
  3. (2006). A Co-ordinated Prostitution Strategy and a summary of responses to Paying the Price. London: Home Office.
  4. (2004). A Critical Examination of responses to Prostitution in Four Countries: Victoria, Australia, the Netherlands and Sweden. London: Child and Woman Abuse Studies Unit,
  5. (2006). A Large Specific Deterrent Effect of Arrest for Patronizing a Prostitute’. Washington DC:
  6. (2005). A Literature Review of the Sexual Health Needs of Commercial Sex Workers and Their Clients.
  7. (1999). A profile of the clients of male sex workers in three Australian cities’,
  8. (2005). A Survey of Male Attendees art Sandyford Initiative: Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs and behaviours in Relation to Prostitution. MA Dissertation.
  9. (2005). A Tale of Three Cities: Regulating Street Prostitution in Scotland.
  10. (2009). ACPO (2004) Policing Prostitution: ACPO’s Policing Strategy and Operational Guidelines for Dealing with Experience and Abuse Through Prostitution. London: Home Office.
  11. (1995). Alcohol and drug use in heterosexual and homosexual prostitution, and its relation to protection behaviour’,
  12. (1990). Alcohol, AIDS risks and sex industry clients: results from a Scottish study’, Drug and Alcohol Dependency 26(3),
  13. (2007). An assessment of Ekberg’s account of Swedish prostitution policy’.
  14. (1990). An ethnographic study of HIV-related risk practices among Glasgow rent boys and their clients: report of a pilot study’,
  15. (2004). Appendix 8: Studies excluded from the review No..
  16. (2004). Attitude Change Following a Diversion Program for Men Who Solicit Sex’,
  17. (2001). Attitudes towards prostitution among males: A “consumers” report’,
  18. (1998). Being a john’.
  19. (2004). Being Outside: Constructing A Response to Street Prostitution. Scotland: Safer Scotland Executive.
  20. (2004). Best Practices to Address the Demand Side of Sex Trafficking.
  21. (2009). Boyfriends, “pimps” and clients’. In Rethinking prostitution: purchasing sex in the 1990s.
  22. (2004). Buying Sex; A survey of men in Chicago. Chicago: Chicago Coalition for the homeless.
  23. (2008). Challenging Men’s Demand for Prostitution in Scotland: A Research Report Based on Interviews with 110 Men Who Bought Women in Prostitution. Scotland: Women’s Support Project.
  24. (2001). Challenging the Kerb Crawler Rehabilitation Programme’, Feminist Review 67,
  25. (2006). Characteristics of customers of street prostitutes’. Annual Meeting of the Canadian Psychological Association.
  26. (2006). Characteristics of men who pay for sex: a UK sexual health clinic survey’,
  27. (2005). Clients and Commercial Sex: Reflections on Paying the Price: A Consultation Paper on Prostitution’, Criminal Law Review ,
  28. (2006). Clients of Female Sex Workers: men or monsters?’
  29. (2007). Clients of indoor commercial sex workers: heterogeneity in patronage patterns and implications for HIV and STI propagation through sexual networks’,
  30. (2007). Clients of Prostitute Women: Deterence, Prevalence, Characteristics and Violence’. Washington DC:
  31. (1999). Clients of street prostitutes in Portland,
  32. (2005). Commercial and Sexual Exploitation of Children and Young People – A Review’, Child Abuse Review 14,
  33. (1998). Community Action and the Displacement of Street Prostitution:
  34. (2005). Comparison of the Male Customers of Female Street Prostitutes With National Samples of Men’,
  35. (1997). Condom use by Dutch men with commercial heterosexual contacts: determinants and considerations’.
  36. (1994). Contextual and interactional factors influencing condom use in heterosexual prostitution contacts’. Patient Education and Counselling Special Issue. Current perspective: AIDS/HIV education and counselling.
  37. (1997). Control and condoms in commercial sex: client perspectives’,Sociology of Health and
  38. (2006). Criminal Statistics 2005’, Home Office Statistical Bulletin
  39. (2004). Criminalising “Punters”: evaluating the Swedish position on prostitution’,
  40. (2002). Cruisin’ for love: An observational study of motorists visiting the Rotterdam streetwalking zone’.
  41. (2003). Cyberpunters and Cyberwhores: Prostitution on the Internet Dot.coms’.
  42. (2008). Deconstructing The Demand for Prostitution: Preliminary Insights From Interviews With Chicago Men Who Purchase Sex’. Chicago: Chicago Alliance Against Sexual Exploitation,
  43. (1993). Developing more effective strategies for curbing prostitution’.
  44. (1990). Deviant behaviour’. In Buying Sex : the phenomenology of being a john.
  45. (1997). Discourses of emotionality in commercial sex: Missing the client voice’,
  46. (2005). Economics of prostitution’. In Economics uncut: A complete guide to life, death and misadventure.
  47. (2003). Estimates of a model of male participants in the market for heterosexual prostitution services’,
  48. (2006). Evaluating the usefulness of a prostitution diversion project’,
  49. (2002). Everyday Occurrence: Violence in the Lives of Girls Exploited
  50. (2007). Examining Sex Work from the Client‘s Perspective: Assessing Johns Using on-line Data’,
  51. (2007). Exploring the possibility of sexual addiction in men arrested for seeking out prostitutes: A preliminary study’,
  52. (2004). Female Prostitution, Customers, and Violence’,
  53. (2008). First Offender Prostitution Program. Tenderloin Task Force Final Report on the Evaluation of the First Offender Prostitution Program.
  54. (2000). Focusing on the Clients of Street Prostitutes: A Creative Approach to Reducing Violence Against Women, Summary Report.
  55. (2005). Four Hundred Thousand Swedish Perverts’, GLQ:
  56. (2006). Government Strategy on Sex Work: A comedy of errors or attack on civil liberties?’ (31
  57. (2004). Hackney, Haringey and Islington Rapid Assessment and Response on Sex Work and Problematic Drug Use. London; The Centre for Research on Drugs and Health Behaviour,
  58. (1993). HIV-Related Risk Practices among Glasgow Male Prostitutes: Reframing Concepts of Risk Behavior,
  59. (2002). HIV/AIDS risk behaviour among adult male prisoners.
  60. (1998). Holding men accountable for prostitution: The unique approach of the sexual exploitation education project’,
  61. (1994). Hustlers in a Shifting Marketplace: The Effects of Displacement on Male Prostitution’,
  62. International (2007).Demand: A Comparative Examination of Sex Tourism and Trafficking in Jamaica, Japan, The Netherlands, and the United States.
  63. (2008). Intimacy, pleasure and the men who pay for sex’.
  64. (1998). Invisible men: making visible male clients of female prostitutes in Merseyside’.
  65. (1997). It’s Just Business, It’s Just Sex: male clients of female prostitutes in Merseyside. Liverpool: Liverpool City Challenge and Liverpool City Centre Partnership.
  66. (2001). It’s Not a Game: A Report on Hampshire Constabulary’s Anti-Kerb Crawling Initiative. Hampshire: Hampshire Constabulary.
  67. (2005). John Court: Comparison of Characteristics, Sexual Behavior and Sexual Attitudes of Clients of Prostitutes’,
  68. Jr?(1997) ‘Prostitution: Profession and pathology’.
  69. (2007). Just Say No‘, A Process Evaluation of a Johns School.
  70. (2005). Kerb crawlers rehabilitation programmes; cutting the deviant male and reinforcing the respectable moral order.
  71. (2002). Kerb Crawling in
  72. (1993). Kerb-crawling, Prostitution, and MultiAgency Policing. Police Research Group, Crime Prevention Series.
  73. (2006). Living and working in areas of street sex work. Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
  74. (2008). Living with the other: Street sex work, contingent communities and degrees of tolerance’.
  75. (2002). Maintaining family values? Cleansing the streets of sex advertising’,
  76. (2001). Male clients of female commercial sex workers: HIV, STDs and risk behaviour’,
  77. (1990). Male Clients of Female Street Prostitutes: Unseen Partners in Sexual Disease Transmission’,
  78. (2008). Males Sexual Scripts: Intimacy, Sexuality and Pleasure in
  79. (2005). Managing and regulating red light districts in British cities’.
  80. (2007). Masculinities and Sexual Violence among a Sample of Clients of Street Prostitutes.
  81. (1999). Meaningful differences: A comparison of the male clients of female street prostitutes with a national sample of men’. Portland Oregon: Paper presented to the Pacific Sociological Association.
  82. (2000). Men create the demand: Women are the supply: Lecture on sexual exploitation’.
  83. (2006). Men who buy sex: a survey of Greater Vancouver Regional District’,
  84. (1998). Men who buy sex: preliminary findings of an exploratory study’.
  85. (1999). Men Who Sell Sex: International perspectives on male prostitution and HIV/AIDS.
  86. (2004). Men Who Solicit Prostitutes: A demographic profile of participants in the prostitution offender program of British Columbia.
  87. (2006). Men’s demand for prostitutes’,
  88. (2004). Men’s Motivations for Soliciting Prostituted Women’. Canada: Annual Meeting of the Canadian Psychological Association.
  89. (2001). Men’s practices in prostitution: The case of Sweden’. In A man’s world? Changing men’s practices
  90. (1998). My sexual encounters with sex workers: the effects on a consumer’.
  91. (2001). Offender Rehabilitation in Practice: Implementing and Evaluating Effective Programmes.
  92. (2008). per cent3Ffile_uuid per cent3D1D625901-1143
  93. Parliamentary Consideration Prior to Stage 3. Scotland Soothill, K. (2004a) ‘Parlour games: The value of an Internet site providing punters’ views of massage parlours’,
  94. (1996). Patrons of the sex industry: Perceptions of risk’,
  95. (2004). Paying the Price: A Consultation Paper on Prostitution. London: Home Office.
  96. (2001). Personality characteristics of male clients of female commercial sex workers in Australia’,
  97. (2008). Playing for Pleasure: men who buy sex.
  98. (2001). Predictors of Rape Myth Acceptance Among Male Clients of Female Street Prostitutes’,
  99. (2007). Prevalence of sexual difficulties among female sex workers and clients attending a sexual health service.’
  100. (2006). Primer on the Male Demand for Prostitution. Coalition Against Trafficking
  101. (2009). Project Client Call: Men who pay for sex in
  102. (2000). Prostitute identities: men, money and violence’,
  103. (1999). Prostitute men now’.
  104. (1990). Prostitutes and Their Clients in Birmingham: Action research to measure and reduce risks of HIV’.
  105. (1995). Prostitutes and their clients: sexual networks and determinants of condom use. Amsterdam: Ponsen and Looijen BV
  106. (2003). Prostitutes’ clients, Ken Livingstone and a new Trojan horse’,
  107. (2007). Prostitution (Public Places)
  108. (2001). Prostitution and fellatio’,
  109. (2001). Prostitution and Feminism: Towards a Politics of Feeling.
  110. (2006). Prostitution and Kerb Crawling: Road Management Interventions. per cent20the per cent20Problem/Prostitutionkerbcrawling.
  111. (1993). Prostitution and risk of HIV: Male partners of female prostitutes’.
  112. (2007). Prostitution in the Netherlands Since Lifting the General Ban on Brothels.
  113. (2003). Prostitution myths held by consumers of the sex trade’. In the symposium Prostitution: A perspective on the customer’s domination of women.
  114. (2004). Prostitution on Demand: Legalizing the Buyers as Sexual Consumers’,
  115. (1999). Prostitution, Power and Freedom.
  116. (2000). Prostitution: On Whores, Hustlers,
  117. (1993). Protection styles of prostitutes’ clients: Intentions, behavior, and considerations in relation to AIDS’,
  118. (2008). Public nuisance injunctions against onstreet sex workers?’
  119. (1991). Punishing prostitutes and their customers: the legacy of the Badgley Committee, the Fraser Committee and Bill C-49’.
  120. (2008). Rape Myth Acceptance in Men Who Completed the Prostitution Offender program of British Columbia’,
  121. (1995). Reaching Male Clients of Female Prostitutes: The Challenge for HIV Prevention’,
  122. (1997). Red Light Districts and Toleration Zones: geographies of female street prostitution in England and Wales’,
  123. (1998). Red Light, Blue Light: Prostitutes, Punters and the Police.
  124. (2005). Reducing Street Prostitution by Influencing Demand: An Alternate Measures Program for Bill 206’. Community Life Improvement Council.
  125. (1992). Regulating Street Prostitution and Kerb-crawling: A Reply to John Lowman’,
  126. (2008). Regulating the Spaces of Sex Work in the EU: Regulation of sex work in Scotland. Working
  127. (2008). Regulating the spaces of sex work in the EU: Regulation of sex work in Sweden’. Working Paper .
  128. (2008). Regulation of Sex Work in the Netherlands. Working Paper.
  129. (1997). Rethinking prostitution: purchasing sex in the 1990s.
  130. (2009). Safer Slough Partnership
  131. (2004). Schools for Johns: Addressing the Demand for Commercial Sex’.
  132. (1999). Selling Sex in Cardiff and London’.
  133. (2001). Selling sex in the city: An assessment of an arrest-referral scheme for sex workers in Kings Cross’.
  134. (2007). Sex in cyberspace: Men who pay for sex.
  135. (2003). Sex in the new Europe: The criminalization of clients and Swedish fear of penetration’,
  136. (1996). Sex in the Sunlight: The Effectiveness, Efficiency, Constitutionality,
  137. (2005). Sex Industry in New Zealand: A Literature Review.
  138. (1995). Sex Surveyed, 1945–1994: From MassObservation’s ‘Little Kinsey’ to the National Survey and the Hite Reports.
  139. (2004). Sex talk’,
  140. (1996). Sex work on the streets: Prostitutes and their clients.
  141. (1997). Sex Work on the Streets: Prostitutes and Their Clients’.
  142. (2005). Sex Work:
  143. (1998). Sex Workers and the Elderly Male Client’.
  144. (2008). Sex Workers Critique
  145. (2004). Sex Workers Critique of Swedish Prostitution Policy http://www.
  146. (2002). Sexing the self, geographies of engagement and encounter’,
  147. (1994). Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles.
  148. (1992). Sexual behavior patterns of customers of male street prostitutes’,
  149. (2004). Sexually repositioned: diversity and the law.
  150. (2009). Shifting Sands: A Comparison of Prostitution Regimes Across Nine Countries. London: Home Office.
  151. (2003). Sleeping with the enemy? Some problems with feminist abolitionist calls to penalise those who buy commercial sex.
  152. (2002). Socio-legal Dynamics and Implications of Diversion: The Case Study of the Toronto John School Diversion Programme for Prostitution Offenders’,
  153. (2004). Space, Risk and Opportunity: The Evolution of Paid Sex Markets.
  154. (2004). Street Prostitution in Raleigh, North Carolina: A Final Report to the U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Community Oriented Policing Services on the Field Applications of the Problem-Oriented Guides for Police Project.
  155. (2006). Street prostitution in Scotland: The views of working women’,
  156. (1995). Street Prostitution: Ten Facts in Search of a Policy’,
  157. (2005). Street Watch: Concept and Practice – Civilian Participation in Street Prostitution Control’,
  158. (2002). Strolling Away.
  159. (2008). Sweden-Denmark link boosts red light trade’,
  160. (2004). Swedish Law That Prohibits the Purchase of Sexual Services: Best Practices for Prevention of Prostitution and Trafficking in Human Beings’.
  161. (2004). Tackling Street Prostitution: Towards an Holistic Approach.
  162. (2004). Tackling Street Prostitution: Towards an holistic approach. London: Home Office Research Study 279.
  163. (2004). Tackling the demand for prostitution: a rapid evidence assessment of the published research literature
  164. (2008). Tackling the Demand for Prostitution: A Review. London: Home Office.
  165. (2005). Target Group: Clients: possibilities of addressing clients of prostitutes.
  166. (2008). Targeting the demand for prostitution and trafficking. Coalition against trafficking in women (CATW).
  167. (2004). The Changing Nature of Adult Entertainment Districts: Between a Rock and a Hard Place or Going from Strength to
  168. (1998). The client: a social, psychological, and behavioural look at the unseen patron of prostitution’.
  169. (1995). The control of female street prostitution in an English city: A case study and evaluation of a joint agency strategy.
  170. (2005). The Demand for Victims of Sex Trafficking.
  171. (2004). The development of a coordinated strategy on prostitution’. In Partial Regulatory Impact Assessment. London: The Stationery Office.
  172. (1995). The economics of sex: What the economists forgot to remember.
  173. (1996). The effect of different police enforcement policies on the control of prostitution’,
  174. (1992). The finishing moment. Temporal and spatial features of sexual interactions between street walkers and car clients’,
  175. (2006). The Flesh Trade in Europe: Trafficking
  176. (2004). The implications of sex tourism on men’s social psychological and physical health’,
  177. (2000). The Kerb Crawlers Rehabilitation Programme: An evaluation from the Police Perspective.
  178. (2001). The meaning of the purchase: Desire, demand and the commerce of sex.
  179. (1998). The prostitute and the client: Challenging the dualisms’,
  180. (2005). The Purchase of Intimacy. US:
  181. (2002). The Sex Exploiter. Theme Paper for the Second World Congress Against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children.
  182. (2002). The socio-legal dynamics and implications of ”diversion”’,
  183. (2005). The Swedish Law That Prohibits the Purchase of A Sexual Service: Best Practices for Prevention of Prostitution and Trafficking in Human Beings’. Ministry of Industry, Employment, and Communications.
  184. (2002). Trafficking – a demand led problem? A multi-country pilot study. Save the Children.
  185. (2000). Tricks and treats: Sex workers write about their clients.
  186. (2007). UK Action Plan on Human Trafficking. London: Home Office.
  187. (2006). Understanding and Applying Research on Prostitution’,
  188. (1996). Understanding the Male Hustler.
  189. (2004). United Kingdom network of sex work projects: response to Paying the Price’.
  190. (2004). Unwelcome Guests: A Community Prosecution Approach to Street Level Drug Dealing and Prostitution’.
  191. (2008). Update to UK Action Plan on Human Trafficking. London: Home Office.
  192. (2002). Vice lessons: A survey of prostitution offenders enrolled in the Toronto John School Diversion Program’,
  193. (2009). Violence Against Persons Who Prostitute: The Experience in
  194. (1993). Violence and Vulnerability:
  195. (2001). Violence by clients towards female prostitutes in different work settings.’ Questionnaire survey.
  196. (2001). Violence Towards Female Prostitutes.
  197. (2005). What Happens When Prostitution Becomes Work? An Update on Legalisation of Prostitution in Australia. Victoria, Australia: Coalition Against Trafficking in Women.
  198. (2008). What is the Best Solution to Addressing Client-based Violence Experienced by Street Working Prostitutes? 15 Golud, A.
  199. (2003). What men say when apprehended for kerb crawling: A model of prostitutes clients’
  200. (2004). Who pays for sex and why? An analysis of social and motivational factors associated with male clients of sex workers’,
  201. (2005). Who Pays for Sex? An analysis of the increasing prevalence of female commercial sex contacts among men in Britain’,
  202. (2006). Who pays for sex? You’d be surprised. Times Online.
  203. (1994). Why do men buy sex and what are their assessments of the HIV-related risks when they do’,
  204. (2004). Working Group on the Legal Regulation of the Purchase of Sexual Services

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.