A three dimensional ray tracing of whistler-mode chorus is performed in a realistic magnetosphere using the HOTRAY code. A variety of important propagation characteristics are revealed associated with azimuthal density gradients and a plasmaspheric plume. Specifically, whistler mode chorus originating from a broad region on the dayside can propagate into the plasmasphere. After entry into the plasmasphere, waves can propagate eastward in MLT and merge to form hiss. This explains how chorus generated on the dayside can contribute to plasmaspheric hiss in the dusk sector. A subset of waves entering the plasmasphere can even propagate globally onto the nightside. Citation: Chen, L., J. Bortnik, R. M. Thorne, R. B. Horne, and V. K. Jordanova (2009), Three-dimensional ray tracing of VLF waves in a magnetospheric environment containing a plasmaspheric plume, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L22101, doi:10.1029/2009GL040451
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