Location of Repository

Analytical methods in wineries: is it time to change?

By Maria Dolores Luque de Castro, Jose Gonzalez-Rodriguez and Pedro Perez Juan


A review of the methods for the most common parameters determined in wine—namely, ethanol, sulfur dioxide, reducing sugars, polyphenols, organic acids, total and volatile acidity, iron, soluble solids, pH, and color—reported in the last 10 years is presented here. The definition of the given parameter, official and usual methods in wineries appear at the beginning of each section, followed by the methods reported in the last decade divided into discontinuous and continuous methods, the latter also are grouped in nonchromatographic and chromatographic methods because of the typical characteristics of each subgroup. A critical comparison between continuous and discontinuous methods for the given parameter ends each section. Tables summarizing the features of the methods and a conclusions section may help users to select the most appropriate method and also to know the state-of-the-art of analytical methods in this area

Topics: F110 Applied Chemistry, F190 Chemistry not elsewhere classified, F100 Chemistry, F180 Analytical Chemistry
Year: 2005
DOI identifier: 10.1081/FRI-200051897
OAI identifier: oai:eprints.lincoln.ac.uk:2119

Suggested articles



  1. (2001). A cyclic voltammetry method suitable for characterizing antioxidant properties of wine and wine phenolics. doi
  2. (2000). A flow-through fluorescent sensor to determine iron(III) and total inorganic iron. doi
  3. (2001). A gas diffusion sequential-injection system for the determination of sulphur dioxide in wines. doi
  4. (1994). A microbial sensor for determination of sulphite in wines.
  5. (1998). A rapid automated method for wine analysis based upon sequential-injection (SI)-FTIR spectrometry. doi
  6. (1996). Absorptiophotometric determination of ethanol in wine with eosin inner ester.
  7. (1996). Alcohol biosensor based on alcohol dehydrogenase and Meldola Blue immobilized into a carbon paste electrode. doi
  8. (1993). Alcohol enzyme electrode.
  9. (1991). All-solid-state amperometric ethanol sensor. doi
  10. (2001). Amperometric biosensor for polyphenol based on horseradish peroxidase immobilized on gold electrodes. doi
  11. (1998). Amperometric biosensors based on solid binding matrices applied in food quality monitoring. doi
  12. (1996). Amperometric detection with membranebased sampling for percent-level determinations of ethanol. doi
  13. (1991). Amperometric substrate determination in flow-injection systems with polypyrrole–enzyme electrodes. doi
  14. (1995). Amplified biosensing of alcohol based on biocatalytic accumulation of the mediator. doi
  15. (1999). An automated flowinjection titrator for spectrophotometric determinations of total acidity in wines, using a single standard solution and gradient calibration. doi
  16. (1992). Análisis de los alimentos. Fundamento, métodos, aplicaciones.
  17. (1976). Análisis de Vinos y Mostos Acribia,
  18. (1976). Análisis de Vinos y Mostos.
  19. (1958). Analyse et controle des vins,
  20. (1958). Analyse et controle des vins, 2nd ed.; Casa Libraire Polytechnique Ch.
  21. (1958). Analyse et controle des vins, 2nd Ed.; Casa Libraire Polytechnique Ch. Béranger, Ed.:Paris,
  22. (1998). Analyse et controle des vins. 2nd ed., Casa Libraire Polytechnique Ch. Béranger Ed.: Paris,
  23. (1958). Analyse et controle des vins. 2nd ed., Casa Libraire Polytechnique Ch. Béranger: Paris,
  24. (1994). Analysis of chiral carboxylic acids in wine by highjperformance liquid chromatography with coupled UV and circular dichroism detection. doi
  25. (1994). Analysis of polyphenolic compounds of different vinegar samples. doi
  26. (1995). Application of FAAS and GFAAS to the control of cloudiness in txakoli wine.
  27. (1992). Application of hydride generation to atomicabsorption-spectrometric analysis of wines and beverages: a review. doi
  28. (1997). Application of multivariate calibration to the simultaneous routine determination of ethanol, glycerol, fructose, glucose and total residual sugars in botrytizedgrape sweet wines by means of near-infra-red reflectance spectroscopy. doi
  29. (1998). Applications of a copper-modified gold electrode for amperometric detection of polar aliphatic compounds by anion-exchange chromatography. doi
  30. (1991). Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry in [o]enology.
  31. (1991). Assay of reducing sugars in beverages, wines, honey and marmalades using potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA). doi
  32. (1997). Atomic absorption determination of standardized metal impurities in wines using ultrasound.
  33. (1997). Automated analysis of alcohol in wine.
  34. (1993). Automated determination of reducing sugars [in wine] by atomic-absorption spectrometry. doi
  35. (1994). Automated multiple development HPLC analysis of sugars on hydrophilic layers. I. Amino layers.
  36. (1994). Bioelectrochemical determination of lactic and malic acids in wine. doi
  37. (1996). Biosensors for analysis of ethanol in food: effect of the pasting liquid. doi
  38. (2000). Biosensors in wine production monitoring. doi
  39. (1996). Capillary gas chromatographic determination of synthetic DL-malic acid in fruit.
  40. (1999). Chemiluminescent methods in alcoholic beverage analysis. doi
  41. (1995). Chemiluminometric flow-injection method for determination of free L-malate in wine with co-immobilized malate dehydrogenase/NADH oxidase. doi
  42. (2000). Chromatography in wine analysis. LC-GCEurope 13(4):254–664.
  43. (1993). Colour reaction of iron(III) with 2,6,7-trihydroxy-9-(5-bromosalicyl)fluorone.
  44. (1996). Comparative study of some phenoxazineand phenothiazine-modified carbon-paste electrodes for ethanol determination. doi
  45. (1998). Composite alcohol biosensors based on solid binding matrix. doi
  46. (1997). Composite transducers for amperometric biosensors. The glucose sensor. doi
  47. (1992). Conductimetric and spectrophotometric determination of the volatile acidity of wines by flow injection. doi
  48. (1995). Construction and use of a tubular picrate ion-selective electrode for reducing sugar determination in port wine by flow-injection analysis. doi
  49. (1995). Contribution of biosensors to oenology and constraints associated with their use. doi
  50. (1999). Decoloration-photometric determination of micro amounts of iron.
  51. (1986). Determination by high-performance liquid chromatography of the principal organic acids in wine.
  52. (1998). Determination of acids and volatile compounds in red Txakoli wine by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography. doi
  53. (1992). Determination of carboxylic acids, sugars, glycerol and ethanol in wine and grape must by ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography with refractive index detection. doi
  54. (1999). Determination of Dfructose in foodstuffs by an improved amperometric biosensor based on a solid binding matrix. doi
  55. (2003). Determination of etanol in beverages by flow injection, pervaporation and density measurements. doi
  56. (2001). Determination of Fe(III) and total Fe in wines by sequential injection analysis and flame atomic absorption spectrometry. doi
  57. (1998). Determination of free sulphur and total sulphur dioxide in wines by an ICP AES method. doi
  58. (1991). Determination of free sulphur dioxide in red wine by alternating current voltammetry. doi
  59. (1993). Determination of free sulphur dioxide in wine by using a biosensor based on a glass electrode. doi
  60. (1990). Determination of glucose in fermentation processes by means of an online coupled flow-injection system using enzyme sensors based on chemically modified electrodes. doi
  61. (1992). Determination of glycerol in wines by high-performance liquid chromatography: comparison with enzymic method. doi
  62. (1995). Determination of iron at ng/ml level by solid phase spectrophotometry after preconcentration on cation exchange filters. doi
  63. (1991). Determination of iron by flowinjection based on the catalytic effect of the iron(III)-ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid complex on the oxidation of hydroxylamine by dissolved oxygen. doi
  64. (1992). Determination of iron(III) and total iron in wines by constant current potentiometric stripping analysis.
  65. (2001). Determination of L-(-)-malic acid and L-(+)-lactic acid in wine by a flow injection-dialysis-enzymic derivatisation approach. doi
  66. (1993). Determination of L-malate in wine by flow injection with co-immobilized malate dehydrogenase-oxaloacetate decarboxylase. doi
  67. (1994). Determination of organic acids by nonsuppressed ionexclusion chromatography with conductometric detection.
  68. (1993). Determination of organic acids in foods by highperformance liquid chromatography.
  69. (1998). Determination of organic acids in wines. A review. doi
  70. (1992). Determination of reducing sugars by the neocuproine method using flow-injection analysis. Food Chem. doi
  71. (1994). Determination of sugars by liquid chromatography with post-column catalytic derivatization and fluorescence detection. doi
  72. (1994). Determination of sulphite in wine by flow-injection analysis with indirect electrochemical detection. doi
  73. (1992). Determination of sulphite in wine through flow injection analysis based on the suppression of luminol chemiluminescence. doi
  74. (1997). Determination of sulphite in wines by gasdiffusion flowinjection analysis utilizing spectrophotometric pH-detection. doi
  75. (2000). Determination of sulphur dioxide and ascorbic acid in beverages using a dual channel flow injection electrochemical detection system. doi
  76. (1991). Determination of sulphur dioxide in white wines by flow injection with electrochemical detection. doi
  77. (1996). Determination of sulphur dioxide in wine using a quartz crystal microbalance. doi
  78. (1993). Determination of sulphur dioxide in wines and beverages by flow-injection analysis with reductive amperometric detection and electrolytic clean-up. doi
  79. (1999). Determination of sulphur dioxide in wines by gas-diffusion flow-injection analysis utilizing modified electrodes with electrostatically assembled films of tetraruthenated porphyrin. doi
  80. (1998). Determination of sulphur dioxide in wines using a flow-injection analysis system with potentiometric detection. doi
  81. (1999). Determination of tartaric acid in solid wine residues by capillary electrophoresis and indirect UV detection. doi
  82. (2001). Determination of tartaric acid in wines by FIA with tubular tartrate-selective electrodes. doi
  83. (2001). Determination of the total acid content in wine based on the voltammetric reduction of quinone. doi
  84. (1991). Determination of total and free sulphur dioxide in wine by flow-injection analysis and gas-diffusion using paminoazobenzene as the colorimetric reagent. doi
  85. (1998). Determination of total and free sulphur dioxide in wine by pervaporation-flow injection. doi
  86. (1996). Determination of trace iron(III) with thiocyanate/resin phase spectrophotometry.
  87. (1995). Development of a chemiluminescence detector with photodiode detection for flow-injection analysis and its application to L-lactate analysis. doi
  88. (1994). Development of an alcohol optode membrane based on fluorescence enhancement of fluorescein derivatives. doi
  89. (1991). Development of an ethanolselective optrode membrane based on a reversible chemical recognition process. doi
  90. (2002). Development of hardware and software for online sample preparation using sequential-injection analysis. doi
  91. (1994). Differential-pulse-polarographic determination of iron in acids, waters, fruit juices and wines. doi
  92. (1998). Direct determination of ethanol in alcoholic beverages by multiwavelength overlapping near-infra-red absorption spectrometry.
  93. (1995). Direct determination of free sulphur dioxide in wine and dried apple samples by using a gas generating and purging device coupled to a continuous flow (injection) system. doi
  94. (1993). Direct determination of non-volatile acids in wines by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Sepu
  95. (2000). Elimination of amino-acid interferences in the chiral ligandexchange chromatographic analysis of lactic acid enantiomers in wine. doi
  96. (1992). Enhanced automatic flowinjection determination of the total polyphenol index of wines using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent.Anal. doi
  97. (2000). Enología: Fundamentos Científicos y Tecnológicos.
  98. (1998). Enzymatic determination of L-(+)-lactic and L-(-)malic acid in wines by flow-injection spectrophotometry. doi
  99. (1999). Enzymatic quantification of L-tartrate in wines and grapes by using the secondary activity of D-malate dehydrogenase. doi
  100. (2000). Enzymic determination of ethanol and glycerol by flowinjection parallel multisite detection.
  101. (1991). Enzymic determination of ethanol by flow-injection analysis using a Kel-F wax–carbon-paste electrode. doi
  102. (1991). Enzymic determination of free L-(-)-malic acid in must and wine by stopped-flow flow-injection analysis. doi
  103. (1993). Enzymic determination of sulphite in foods.
  104. (2003). Evaluation of a Fourier Transform Infrared instrument for rapid quality-control wine analyses.
  105. (1991). Extraction-spectrophotometric and derivativespectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of iron as the ion-association iron(II)-3-(4-phenyl-2-pyridinyl)-5-phenyl-1,2,4-triazine- picrate complex. doi
  106. (1995). Flow analysis with membrane separation and time based sampling for ethanol determination in beer and wine. doi
  107. (1997). Flow injection spectrophotometric determination of sulphite using a crude extract of sweet potato root [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] as a source of polyphenol oxidase. doi
  108. (1993). Flow-injection analysis of formaldehyde and sulphite using the oxidation of p-phenylenediamine by hydrogen peroxide. doi
  109. (1992). Flow-injection analysis of wine – accomplishments and needs (II). doi
  110. (1992). Flow-injection analysis of wine— accomplishments and needs. doi
  111. (1996). Flow-injection analysis with chemiluminescent detection of sulphite using sodium carbonate-sodium bicarbonate-copper ion system. doi
  112. (1992). Flow-injection determination of ethanol by fibre-optic chemiluminescence measurement. doi
  113. (1995). Flow-injection determination of sugars in foods by use of a porphinatotitanium(IV) reagent. doi
  114. (1998). Flow-injection determination of sulphite in wines and fruit juices by using a bulk acoustic wave impedance sensor coupled to a membrane separation technique. doi
  115. (1996). Flow-injection piezoelectric determination of brix in sugar cane juice and in the alcoholic fermentation process. doi
  116. (1991). Flow-injection system for the fluorimetric determination of fructose with an immobilized mannitol dehydrogenase reactor. doi
  117. (1999). Flow-injection-spectrophotometric determination of reducing sugars using a focalized coiled reactor in a domestic microwave oven. doi
  118. (1997). Flow-injection, amperometric determination of ethanol in wines after solid-phase extraction. doi
  119. (2000). Fluorimetric determination of iron using 5-(4-methoxyphenylazo)-8-(4-toluenesulfonamido)quinoline. doi
  120. (1994). Gas diffusion and micellar catalysis in the flow-injection determination of sulphite. doi
  121. (1998). Gas diffusion-flow injection determination of free and total sulphur dioxide in wines by conductometry. doi
  122. (1993). Gas-chromatographic analysis of low-boiling organic acids in wine and fermented liquid.
  123. (1990). Gas-diffusion dilution flow-injection method for the determination of ethanol in beverages without sample pre-treatment. doi
  124. (1991). Glucose and ethanol biosensors based on thick film technology. doi
  125. (1999). Graphite-teflon composite bienzyme electrodes for the determination of L-lactate: application to food samples. doi
  126. (2000). Handbook of Enology, The Chemistry of Wine Stabilization and treatments.Vol 2. doi
  127. (1998). High-performance liquid chromatography with real-time Fourier-transform infrared detection for the determination of carbohydrates, alcohols and organic acids in wines. doi
  128. (1993). High-performance liquidchromatographic analysis of phenacyl esters of carboxylic acids directly esterified in wines.
  129. (1991). High-performance liquidchromatographic determination of glucose using an immobilized-enzyme reactor. doi
  130. (2002). http://www.oiv.int/Database/Images/Client/Oeno%206-2000es.pdf (accessed
  131. (1997). Liquid chromatographic determination of organic acids in txakoli from Bizkaia. Food Chem. doi
  132. (1997). Metals in wine: contamination, spoilage and toxicity. Analusis
  133. (2002). Method for the simultaneous determination of total polyphenol and anthocyan indexes in red wines using a flow injection approach. doi
  134. (1995). Microbial sensor for estimating organic acids in wine. doi
  135. (1992). Miniaturized disposable biosensors. doi
  136. Modelling the relation between CieLab parameters and sensory scores for quality control of red wine colour. doi
  137. (1998). Monitoring ethanol production during wine fermentation processes by a pervaporation-enzymic derivatisation approach. doi
  138. (1994). Monitoring of reducing sugars by flowinjection analysis using p-hydroxybenzoic acid hydrazide. doi
  139. (2000). Monoterpenes in grape juice and wines. doi
  140. (2000). Multisyringe flow system: determination of sulphur dioxide in wines. doi
  141. (1989). Nº 2676/90 of the Council of
  142. (1998). Online dialysis with HPLC for the automated preparation and analysis of amino-acids, sugars and organic acids in grape juice and wines. doi
  143. (1996). Online proton NMR to facilitate tube preparation in SNIF-NMR analysis. doi
  144. (2000). Optimized determination of iron in grape juice, wines, and other alcoholic beverages by atomic absorption spectrometry.
  145. (2000). Pervaporation prior to gas chromatography for the determination of enological parameters. Chromatographia 52(3-4):205–210. Winery Analytical Methods 261 doi
  146. (1992). Potentiometric detectors for the determination of acidity by discontinuous flow analysis. doi
  147. (1995). Prediction of some physico-chemical parameters in red wines from ultraviolet-visible spectra using a partial least-squares model in latent variables. doi
  148. (1997). Preparation and application of a microbial ethanol electrode.
  149. (1996). Radial-compression reversed-phase HPLC analysis of aliphatic acids in grape juice and wine.
  150. (1992). Rapid determination of ethanol in Shaoxing wine by headspace chromatography.
  151. (1992). Rapid determination of lactic acid in food by gas chromatography.
  152. (1992). Rapid-scan [correlation] NMR spectroscopy delivers structural analysis for food quality control. Lab Equip Dig.
  153. (1993). Rapid-scan correlation NMR spectroscopy for food analysis. doi
  154. (1990). Recueil des méthodes internationales d´analyse des vins et des mouts
  155. (1990). Recueil des méthodes internationales d´analyse des vins et des mouts;
  156. (1990). Recueil des méthodes internationales d´analyse des vins et des mouts.
  157. (2000). Reversed-phase HPLC determination of organic acids in wine after solidphase extraction.
  158. (2001). Semiautomatic flow-injection method for determination of volatile acidity in wines.
  159. (2001). Sensitive and selective flow-injection analysis of hydrogen sulphite/sulphur dioxide by fluorescence detection with and without membrane separation by gas diffusion. doi
  160. (1992). Separation and detection of organic acids by ionexclusion chromatography.
  161. (2001). Separation of phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography with absorbance and fluorimetric detection. doi
  162. (2000). Separation of polyphenols in Canary Islands wine by capillary zone electrophoresis without preconcentration. doi
  163. (1999). Sequential determination of carbon dioxide and free sulphur dioxide in wine by flow-injection pervaporation with in series potentiometric-photometric detection. doi
  164. (1998). Sequential determination of titratable acidity and tartaric acid in wines by flow-injection spectrophotometry. doi
  165. (1999). Sequential determination of total and volatile acidity in wines based on a flow injection-pervaporation approach. doi
  166. (1993). Sequential fluorescent determination of iron and cobalt in wine with 2,6,7-trihydroxy-9-styryl-fluorone-3 and surfactant by microwave digestion without separation.
  167. (2002). Sequential spectrophotometric determination of methanol and iron in vinegar by a flow injectionpervaporation method. doi
  168. (2002). Sequentialinjection system for the spectrophotometric determination of reducing sugars in wines.
  169. (2001). Simultaneous (or sequential) determination of the total polyphenol index (or I280) and density in wines by flow injection. doi
  170. (1993). Simultaneous analysis of inorganic anions and organic acids by single-column ion chromatography.
  171. (1997). Simultaneous determination of carbohydrates and organic acids in beer and wine by ion chromatography. doi
  172. (2000). Simultaneous determination of ethanol and glycerol in wines by a flow injection-pervaporation approach with in parallel photometric and fluorimetric detection. doi
  173. (1991). Simultaneous determination of glucose, ethanol, glycerol and sulphite in white wine by flow-injection analysis including parallel configuration of immobilized enzyme columns. doi
  174. (1996). Simultaneous determination of inorganic anions and carboxylic acids in wine using isocratic separation on a permanently coated reversed-phase column and UV indirect detection. doi
  175. (1996). Simultaneous determination of lactic acid, glutamic acid and glucose by HPLC using an enzyme sensor using photocrosslinkable poly(vinyl alcohol) support as the detector. Nippon Kagaku Kaishi 5:457–461. doi
  176. (2000). Simultaneous determination of organic acids in wine samples by capillary electrophoresis and UV detection: optimization with five different background electrolytes. doi
  177. (1994). Simultaneous determination of sulphite and phosphate in wine by means of immobilized enzyme reactions and amperometric detection in a flow-injection system. doi
  178. (1996). Simultaneous determination of the major organic acids, sugars, glycerol, and ethanol by HPLC in grape musts and white wines. doi
  179. (1991). Simultaneous enzymic determination of L-(-)-malic acid and L-(+)-lactic acid in wine by flow-injection analysis. doi
  180. (1992). Simultaneous flowinjection analysis of L-lactate and L-malate in wine based on the use of enzyme reactors. doi
  181. (1995). Simultaneous spectrofluorimetric determination of glycerol and ethanol in wine by flow injection using immobilized enzymes. doi
  182. (2001). Single-use optical sensor for the determination of iron in water and white wines. doi
  183. (2000). Spectrophotometric determination of carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide in wines by flow injection. doi
  184. (1990). Spectrophotometric determination of ethanol in wine with 3',3'',5',5''-tetrabromophenophthalein ethyl ester potassium.
  185. (1990). Spectrophotometric determination of ethanol in wine with 3',3",5',5"-tetrabromophenophthalein ethyl ester potassium. Lihua Jianyan Huaxue Fence
  186. (1992). Spectrophotometric determination of L-malic acid with a malic enzyme. doi
  187. (1993). Spectrophotometric determination of the alcohol content of alcoholic drinks with bis(OO’-dipropyl dithiophosphato)nickel(II). doi
  188. (1998). Spectrophotometric flow-injection determination of ethanol in distilled spirits and wines involving permeation through a silicon tubular membrane Anal. doi
  189. (1993). Spectrophotometric flowthrough sensor for the determination of sulphur dioxide. doi
  190. (1997). Spectrophotometric micro-method for the determination of ethanol in commercial beverages. doi
  191. (1993). Stopped-flow, air-segmented continuous flow: kinetic determinations of glucose and phosphate in wine and serum samples. doi
  192. (1992). Study of analytical method for sugars in wines by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
  193. (1993). Survey and application of HPLC analysis of acids and sugars in wine.
  194. (1994). Tartaric acid in wines may be useful for preventing renal calculi: rapid determination by HPLC. doi
  195. (1995). Thin tin oxide film alcohol-gas sensor. doi
  196. (1976). Traité d´oenologie. Sciencies et techniques du vin.
  197. (1976). Traité d´oenologie. Sciencies et techniques duvin.
  198. (1992). Use of GDX-103 as stationary phase in the GC analysis of wines.
  199. (1993). Use of rapid-scan correlation nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a quantitative analytical method. doi
  200. (1996). Vapour generation—Fouriertransform infra-red direct determination of ethanol in alcoholic beverages. doi
  201. (2000). Vibrational Spectroscopy in the Analysis of dairy products and wine. doi
  202. (1996). Volatile phenolic compounds of wine.
  203. (1994). Voltammetric determination of free sulphur dioxide in wines using platinum and gold disc micro-electrodes. doi
  204. (1993). Voltammetry with micro-electrodes in wine: determination of total acidity. doi
  205. (1990). Wine analysis with FTIR spectrometry.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.