The electromagnetic valve actuator can deliver much improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions in spark ignition (SI) engines owing to the potential for variable valve timing when compared with cam-operated, or conventional, variable valve strategies. The possibility exists to reduce pumping losses by throttle-free operation, along with closed-valve engine braking. However, further development is required to make the technology suitable for accept- ance into the mass production market. This paper investigates the application of multiobjective optimization techniques to the conflicting objective functions inherent in the operation of such a device. The techniques are utilized to derive the optimal force–displacement characteristic for the solenoid actuator, along with its controllability and dynamic/steady state performance
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