HaRas activates the NADPH oxidase complex in human neuroblastoma cells via extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway.


In this study we have investigated the effects of the small GTP-binding-protein Ras on the redox signalling of the human neuroblastoma cell line, SK-N-BE stably transfected with HaRas(Val12). The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide anions were significantly higher in HaRas(Val12) expressing (SK-HaRas) cells than in control cells. The treatment of cells with 4-(2-aminoethyl) benzenesulfonylfluoride, a specific inhibitor of the membrane superoxide generating system NADPH oxidase, suppressed the rise in ROS and significantly reduced superoxide levels produced by SK-HaRas cells. Moreover, HaRas(Val12) induced the translocation of the cytosolic components of the NADPH oxidase complex p67(phox) and Rac to the plasma membrane. These effects depended on the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK1/2) pathway, as the specific MEK inhibitor, PD98059, prevented HaRas-mediated increase in ROS and superoxide anions. In contrast, the specific phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin were unable to reverse the effects of HaRas(Val12). Moreover, cholinergic stimulation of neuroblastoma cells by carbachol, which activated endogenous Ras/ERK1/2, induced a significant increase in ROS levels and elicited membrane translocation of p67(phox) and Rac. ROS generation induced by carbachol required the activation of ERK1/2 and PI3K. Hence, these data indicate that HaRas-induced ERK1/2 signalling selectively activates NADPH oxidase system in neuroblastoma cells

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