This report presents a literature study that was carried out to collect data and information\ud required for developing a strategy to assess the suitability and sustainability of UK aquifers\ud for (open-loop) GSHP installations. Developing such a strategy requires a good\ud hydrogeological understanding but also a good knowledge of what GSHP systems are\ud currently in use, how they are used, what problems are associated with their use and how they\ud are regulated. Once this is understood, a methodology can be devised that assesses the\ud suitability of an aquifer/location for GSHP installations and considers its sustainable use.\ud Considering the complexity of influencing factors and processes, this is likely to include the\ud use of numerical models and/or data management tools, such as GIS.\ud This report collects and summarizes the information available in the contemporary literature\ud on open-loop ground source heat pump (GSHP) applications. Chapter 1 provides a brief\ud introduction and background information on the subject. In Chapter 2, information on the\ud general use of open-loop GSHP technology within the UK are gathered together with\ud statistics on the number of installations and capacities. Chapter 3 gives specific examples of\ud schemes that are currently in operation in the UK and worldwide. Where available, this\ud includes system-specific data such as abstraction rates, thermal capacities and information on\ud the system’s design. Chapter 4 summarizes available information and data on the costeffectiveness\ud of GSHP installations while Chapter 5 discusses potential problems associated\ud with the running of such schemes. Chapter 6 is concerned with the regulation of GSHP\ud systems. It gives a brief outline of existing regulatory approaches as currently employed\ud within different European countries as well as the US. Finally Chapter 7 examines existing\ud modelling approaches that have been used to investigate how GSHP schemes impact on the\ud source aquifer. The chapter also reviews GIS-based tools that evaluate the suitability and\ud sustainability of an aquifer for GSHP installations
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