Location of Repository

Open-loop ground source heat pumps and groundwater systems : a literature review of current applications, regulations and problems

By C. Abesser


This report presents a literature study that was carried out to collect data and information\ud required for developing a strategy to assess the suitability and sustainability of UK aquifers\ud for (open-loop) GSHP installations. Developing such a strategy requires a good\ud hydrogeological understanding but also a good knowledge of what GSHP systems are\ud currently in use, how they are used, what problems are associated with their use and how they\ud are regulated. Once this is understood, a methodology can be devised that assesses the\ud suitability of an aquifer/location for GSHP installations and considers its sustainable use.\ud Considering the complexity of influencing factors and processes, this is likely to include the\ud use of numerical models and/or data management tools, such as GIS.\ud This report collects and summarizes the information available in the contemporary literature\ud on open-loop ground source heat pump (GSHP) applications. Chapter 1 provides a brief\ud introduction and background information on the subject. In Chapter 2, information on the\ud general use of open-loop GSHP technology within the UK are gathered together with\ud statistics on the number of installations and capacities. Chapter 3 gives specific examples of\ud schemes that are currently in operation in the UK and worldwide. Where available, this\ud includes system-specific data such as abstraction rates, thermal capacities and information on\ud the system’s design. Chapter 4 summarizes available information and data on the costeffectiveness\ud of GSHP installations while Chapter 5 discusses potential problems associated\ud with the running of such schemes. Chapter 6 is concerned with the regulation of GSHP\ud systems. It gives a brief outline of existing regulatory approaches as currently employed\ud within different European countries as well as the US. Finally Chapter 7 examines existing\ud modelling approaches that have been used to investigate how GSHP schemes impact on the\ud source aquifer. The chapter also reviews GIS-based tools that evaluate the suitability and\ud sustainability of an aquifer for GSHP installations

Topics: Earth Sciences
Publisher: British Geological Survey
Year: 2010
OAI identifier: oai:nora.nerc.ac.uk:11706

Suggested articles



  1. (1987). Air conditioning earth coupled water source heat pumps- closed and open-loop systems.
  2. (2008). An information survival kit for the prospective geothermal heat pump owner. (Cambridge, MA: Heat Spring Learning Institute.) Available from http://www.heatspring.com/downloads/intro/GeothermalSurvivalKit.pdf ROSS-SCHMIDT,
  3. (2009). An introduction to 'thermogeology' and the exploitation of ground source heat.
  4. (2008). An introduction to Thermogeology-Ground Source Heating and Cooling.
  5. (2009). Anthropogenic thermogeological 'anomaly'
  6. (1989). Artifical recharge in Las Vegas Valley, Clark County Nevada.
  7. (2002). Artifical recharge of groundwater: hydrogeology and engineering.
  8. (2006). Assessment of silica scaling around injection wells of the Berlin Geothermal Field, El Salvador, using field experiments and chemical modeling.
  9. (2007). Atlas sur la geothermie tres basse energie en region centre. Rapport finale, BRGM/Rp/-55088-FR. Available from http://www.geothermie-perspectives.fr/Doc_CEN/Rapport_BRGM_RP55088-FR.pdf OR/10/045 Draft MCMILLAN,
  10. (2010). Available from http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/Generate-your-own-energy/Ground-source-heat-pumps ENVIRONMENT AGENCY.
  11. (2007). Development of suitability maps for ground-coupled heat pump systems using groundwater and heat transport models.
  12. (2002). Geochemical Modeling of an Aquifer Storage Recovery Experiment, Charleston, South Carolina. 38-41
  13. (2004). Geothermal (groundsource) heat pumps- A world overview.
  14. (2005). Geothermal heat pump case studies of the West.
  15. (2010). Geothermal Mapping. Hydrogeochemical Engineering Research and Outreach Group, Newcastle University, Draft final report; Project reference SP750.
  16. (2010). Geothermal potential of shallow aquifers: Decision-aid tool for heat-pump installation. World Geothermal Congress.
  17. (1980). Ground-water heat pumps: an examniation of hydrogeologic, environmental , legal and economic factors affecting their use.
  18. (1997). Guide to the Revised Heat and Solute Transport Simulator: HST3D --Version 2. US Geological Survey, Water-Resources Investigations Report 97-4157. Available from ftp://brrftp.cr.usgs.gov/pub/klkipp/hst3d.release/doc-2.pdf
  19. (1978). Impact of the use of heat pumps on groundwater temperatures.
  20. (2009). Lessons from London: regulation of open-loop ground source heat pumps in central London.
  21. (2009). Managment of the London basin Chalk aquifer. Environment Agency of England and Wales, Status Report
  22. (1997). Manual on environmental issues related to geothermal heat pump systems.
  23. (2006). Modeling scaling of solica from reinjection waters at well head conditions in the Berlin Geothermal Field, El Salvador, Central America.
  24. (2007). Modelling doublets and double-porosity.
  25. (2007). Modelling groundwater cooling schemes in London.
  26. (2010). Modelling large ground source cooling systems in the Chalk aquifer of central London.
  27. (2009). Modelling of a thermal plume in the Sherwood Sandstone: a case study in North Yorkshire.
  28. (2003). Numerical simulation of reactive flow in hot aquifers: SHEMAT and Processing SHEMAT.
  29. (2009). Open-loop groundwater heat pumps development for large buildings: A case study.
  30. (2009). Potsdam, Germany. Available from http://www.feflow.info/342+M5a2efe83c64.html
  31. (2007). Predictive modelling of groundwater abstraction and artificial recharge of cooling water.
  32. (2008). presented at
  33. (2005). Reference Manual for FEFLOW®.
  34. (1965). Solutions, Minerals and Equilibria. (New York: Harper and Row.)
  35. (2004). Subsurface heat flow in an urban environment.
  36. (1999). The Class V Underground Injection Study: Volume 19: Heat pump and air conditioning return flow wells.
  37. (1989). The engineering implications of rising groundwater levels in the deep aquifer beneath London.
  38. (2006). The Powergen Heat Plant: A Ground source heat pump for domestic space and water heating in small insulated houses.
  39. (2005). Thermal sustainability of groundwater-source cooling in Winnipeg,
  40. (2009). Thermogeological assessment of open-loop well-doublet schemes: a review and synthesis of analytical approaches.
  41. (2003). United States geothermal policy- Provison of access and encouragong project development. Lectures on Sustainable Use and Operating Policy for Geothermal Resources FRIDLEIFSSON,
  42. (2007). Well-pumping issues in commercial groundwater heat pump system

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.