Flow fractional reserve (FFR) allows to evaluate the functional significance of coronary artery lesions, through the ratio of the mean coronary artery pressure after the stenosis to the mean aortic pressure during maximum hyperemia. The actual widely accepted cut-off value is 0.80. Below this value a coronary lesion is considered significant and therefore it requires invasive revascularization. Several studies [in particular Fractional Flow Reserve vs Angiography for Multivessel Evaluation 1 (FAME-1) and FAME-2] have shown the relationship between FFR measurement and hard end-points (death, myocardial infarction, and urgent revascularization). Consequently, FFR evaluation represents the cornerstone in the decision-making in intermediate coronary lesions. Recent studies paved the way for further applications of FFR evaluation in complex and tricky clinical settings. In this paper, we perform an overview of the data regarding contemporary application of FFR. In particular, we review the use of FFR in: left main intermediate stenoses, serial stenoses, evaluation after stenting, guidance in coronary artery bypass surgery, and acute coronary syndrome. All the data presented in our overview confirm the essential role of FFR assessment in the daily clinical practice. The shift from "operator-dependent" to "FFR-dependent" evaluation in intermediate coronary artery stenosis is of paramount importance in order to improve the prognosis of our patients, through the discrimination of the functional role of every single coronary stenosis
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