Background: The etiology of primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell CD30+ lymphoma is largely unknown, and although an infectious involvement has been suspected, the implication of infectious agents in its pathogenesis is still unclear. Findings: We report the case of a HIV-negative patient referred to our hospital with a rapidly enlarging skin tumor on her upper eyelid. Surgical excision was performed and histological analysis evidenced a primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Due to the ocular localization and to the prominent angiogenic component of the lesion, molecular analyses for the detection of Chlamydophila pneumoniae and HHV8 were performed, revealing the presence of a infection by both pathogens in surgical biopsy and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Conclusions: These findings suggest for the first time a possible association of C. pneumoniae and/or HHV8 infection, or both together, with primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma in non-immunocompromised and HIV-negative subjects. This potential pathogenic association, if confirmed, could provide potential indications for future therapy
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