Neuropeptide S (NPS) regulates various biological functions by selectively activating the NPS receptor (NPSR). Recently, the NPSR ligand [tBu-d-Gly5]NPS was generated and in vitro characterized as a pure antagonist at the mouse NPSR. In the present study the pharmacological profile of [tBu-d-Gly5]NPS has been investigated. [tBu-d-Gly5]NPS activity was evaluated in vitro in the calcium mobilization assay at the rat NPSR and in vivo in the locomotor activity and righting reflex tests in mice and in the elevated plus maze and defensive burying assays in rats. In vitro, [tBu-d-Gly5]NPS was inactive per se while it inhibited the calcium mobilization induced by 30 nM NPS (pKB 7.42). In Schild analysis experiments [tBu-d-Gly5]NPS (0.1–10 μM) produced a concentration-dependent rightward shift of the concentration–response curve to NPS, showing a pA2 value of 7.17. In mouse locomotor activity experiments, supraspinal injection of [tBu-d-Gly5]NPS (1–10 nmol) dose dependently counteracted NPS (0.1 nmol) stimulant effects. In the mouse righting reflex assay [tBu-d-Gly5]NPS (0.1–10 nmol) fully prevented the arousal-promoting action of the natural peptide (0.1 nmol). Finally, [tBu-d-Gly5]NPS (3–30 nmol) was able to completely block NPS (1 nmol) anxiolytic-like actions in rat elevated plus maze and defensive burying assays. Collectively, the present results demonstrated that [tBu-d-Gly5]NPS behaves both in vitro and in vivo as a pure and potent NPSR antagonist. This compound represents a novel and useful tool for investigating the pharmacology and neurobiology of the NPS/NPSR system
To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.