Stem cells (SC) research is an important part of biotechnology studies that could lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies in different fields of medicine. \ud It is known that stem cells exist in early embryos as well as in some individual adult tissues. A lot of efforts have been made to understand biology of stem cells, particularly the features concerning their proliferation, self-renewal and differentiation abilities (the three major characteristics of SC) and subsequently to find out the role of the genes and proteins involved in these processes. \ud Research on stem cells is advancing knowledge on how healthy cells replace damaged cells in adult organisms. This promising area of science is also leading scientists to investigate the possibility of cell-based therapies to treat disease, which is often referred to as regenerative or reparative medicine.\ud Stem-cell biology is in a phase of dynamic expansion and is forming connections with a broad range of basic and applied disciplines. Stem cell research has offered the promise of effective cell-based therapies in treating many debilitating diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. In the last few years, the therapeutic potential of stem cells has inspired the imagination, intense interest, and targeted investment of scientists, clinicians, and the general public toward this area of biology.\ud Thus, in this chapter we would like to summarize recent advances in stem cell biology, as well as to discuss how clinical medicine could take advantage from this fascinating field of biology
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