Location of Repository

Water supply and health

By Paul R. Hunter, Alan M. MacDonald and Richard C. Carter

Abstract

A safe, reliable, affordable, and easily accessible water supply is essential for good health. Yet, for several decades, about a billion people in developing countries have not had a safe and sustainable water supply. It has been estimated that a minimum of 7.5 litres of water per person per day is required in the home for drinking, preparing food, and personal hygiene, the most basic requirements for water; at least 50 litres per person per day is needed to ensure all personal hygiene, food hygiene, domestic cleaning, and laundry needs [1]. This domestic water consumption is dwarfed by the demands of agriculture and ecosystems, even in wealthy countries where per capita domestic water consumption greatly exceeds these figures [2]. To cover all these requirements and to avoid water stress, experts generally agree that about 1,000 cubic metres of freshwater per capita per year is needed

Topics: Earth Sciences
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Year: 2010
DOI identifier: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000361
OAI identifier: oai:nora.nerc.ac.uk:12203

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. (2003). A fatal waterborne disease epidemic in Walkerton, Ontario: comparison with other waterborne outbreaks in the developed world.
  2. (2009). A tool for technical assessment of rural water supply systems in South Africa. doi
  3. (2001). Acceptable risk. In: Fewtrell
  4. (2006). An attempt to estimate the global burden of disease due to fluoride in drinking water.
  5. (2005). An estimation of the global burden of disease due to skin lesions caused by arsenic in drinking water.
  6. (2002). Appropriate food policies and investments could reduce child malnutrition by 43% in
  7. (2009). Aquastat online database.
  8. (2002). Are large-scale water facilities in Burkina Faso helping to improve child nutrition? Cahiers d’etudes et de recherche´
  9. (2000). Arsenic in groundwater and health problems in Bangladesh.
  10. (2010). Available: http:// www.wssinfo.org/en/welcome.html. Accessed
  11. (2010). Average water use per person per day.
  12. Calow RC (2009) Developing groundwater for secure rural water supplies in Africa. doi
  13. (2005). Capacity building in Africa. Washington DC: World Bank Operations Evaluation Department.
  14. (2003). Community water, community management: from system to service in rural areas. doi
  15. (2000). Contamination of drinking-water by arsenic in Bangladesh: A public health emergency.
  16. (2005). Developing groundwater: a guide for rural water supply.
  17. (2007). Development and implementation of water safety plans for small water supplies in Bangladesh: benefits and lessons learned.
  18. (2003). Domestic Water Quantity, Service Level and Health. Geneva: World Health Organisation, Available:
  19. (1972). Drawers of water: Domestic water use in East Africa. Chicago:
  20. (1991). Effects of improved water supply and sanitation on ascaris, diarrhoea dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma.
  21. (2009). Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the aquatic environment: implications for the drinking water industry and global environmental health.
  22. (2005). Ensuring sustained beneficial outcomes for water and sanitation programmes in the developing world. Den Haag (Netherlands):
  23. (2007). Estimating the costs and benefits of water and sanitation improvements at global level.
  24. (2009). Estimating the impact on health of poor reliability of drinking water interventions in developing countries.
  25. (2010). Fluoride and health hazards: community perception in a fluorotic area of central Rajasthan (India): an arid environment.
  26. (2008). Global costs of attaining the Millennium Development Goal for water supply and sanitation.
  27. (2008). Governance matters VII. Washington DC: World Bank, Working Paper 4654. Available:
  28. (2008). Groundwater development for poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa.
  29. (2003). Groundwater: the processes and global significance of aquifer degradation. doi
  30. Havelaar A (2001) The Global Burden of Disease study and applications in water, sanitation and hygiene.
  31. (1999). Health, civilization, and the state: a history of public health from ancient to modern times.
  32. (2005). Hunger in Africa: the link between unhealthy people and unhealthy soils.
  33. (2003). Indicators for monitoring the Millennium Development Goals: definitions, rationale, concepts and sources.
  34. (2007). Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea: systematic review and meta-analysis.
  35. (2006). Investigating options for selfhelp water supply: from field research to pilot interventions
  36. (2008). Investments in agricultural water management for poverty reduction in Africa: case studies of Limpopo, Nile and Volta river basins.
  37. (2006). Landscaping and review of technologies and approaches for water, sanitation and hygiene. s.l.:
  38. (1993). Lessons learned from the UN water decade. doi
  39. (2005). Making water a part of economic development: the economic benefits of improved water management and services.
  40. (2000). Management of an outbreak of meningococcal meningitis in a Sudanese refugee camp in northern Uganda.
  41. (2009). Parker A
  42. (2010). Progress on sanitation and drinkingwater,
  43. (2000). Representing twentieth century space time climate variability. Part II: development of 1901–96 monthly grids of terrestrial surface climate. doi
  44. (2003). Review of arsenicosis in West Bengal, India - A clinical perspective.
  45. (2007). Sink or swim? Watersecurity for growth and development.
  46. (1973). Small is beautiful: A study of economics as if people mattered. s.l: Blond and Briggs Ltd.
  47. Smedley PL (2005) Fluoride in natural waters.
  48. (2008). State of world population 2008. s.l.: United Nations Population Fund,
  49. (2010). Supply Network doi
  50. (2007). Sustainability of arsenic mitigation in Bangladesh: Results of a functionality survey International. doi
  51. (2007). The Millennium Development Goals Report.
  52. (2003). The private sector and water and sanitation services – policy and poverty issues. doi
  53. (2007). The role of irrigation on improvement of nutritional status of young children in central Kenya.
  54. (2002). Thomas Southwood Smith FRCP (1788–1861): leading exponent of diseases of poverty, and pioneer of sanitary reform in the mid-nineteenth century.
  55. (2005). Transmissivity variations from mudstones.
  56. (2002). Updating the DALYs for diarrhoeal disease.
  57. (2003). Water safety plans for small systems: a model for applying HACCP concepts for cost-effective monitoring in developing countries.
  58. (2005). Water Safety Plans, managing drinking water quality from catchment to consumer. Geneva: WHO, Available: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_ health/dwq/wsp170805.pdf. Accessed
  59. (2006). Water scarcity: Fact or fiction?
  60. (1999). Water- and excreta-related diseases: unitary environmental classification.
  61. (2005). Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions to reduce diarrhoea in less developed countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
  62. (1997). Waterborne disease: epidemiology and ecology.
  63. (2009). What impact will climate change have on rural groundwater supplies in Africa.
  64. (2010). World Health Organisation doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.