Location of Repository

Enhanced chlorhexidine skin penetration with eucalyptus oil

By T.J. Karpanen, Barbara R Conway, T. Worthington, A.C. Hilton, T.S.J. Elliott and P.A. Lambert

Abstract

Background\ud Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) is a widely used skin antiseptic, however it poorly penetrates the skin, limiting its efficacy against microorganisms residing beneath the surface layers of skin. The aim of the current study was to improve the delivery of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) when used as a skin antiseptic.\ud \ud \ud Method\ud Chlorhexidine was applied to the surface of donor skin and its penetration and retention under different conditions was evaluated. Skin penetration studies were performed on full-thickness donor human skin using a Franz diffusion cell system. Skin was exposed to 2% (w/v) CHG in various concentrations of eucalyptus oil (EO) and 70% (v/v) isopropyl alcohol (IPA). The concentration of CHG (μg/mg of skin) was determined to a skin depth of 1500 μm by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).\ud \ud \ud Results\ud The 2% (w/v) CHG penetration into the lower layers of skin was significantly enhanced in the presence of EO. Ten percent (v/v) EO in combination with 2% (w/v) CHG in 70% (v/v) IPA significantly increased the amount of CHG which penetrated into the skin within 2 min.\ud \ud \ud Conclusion\ud The delivery of CHG into the epidermis and dermis can be enhanced by combination with EO, which in turn may improve biocide contact with additional microorganisms present in the skin, thereby enhancing antisepsis

Topics: Q1, QR, RC
Publisher: Biomed Central
Year: 2010
OAI identifier: oai:eprints.hud.ac.uk:8847

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. (2008). A: Prospective randomized trial of 3 antiseptic solutions for prevention of catheter colonization in an intensive care unit for adult patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol doi
  2. (2007). Ali A: Status of terpenes as skin penetration enhancers. Drug Discovery Today doi
  3. (2007). Alonso A: Effects of 1,8-cineole on the dynamics of lipids and proteins of stratum corneum. doi
  4. (2007). Alonso A: Effects of ethanol/l-menthol on the dynamics and partitioning of spin-labeled lipids in the stratum corneum. doi
  5. (2006). An evaluation of three strategies to reduce device related infections associated with hypodermic needles and peripheral vascular catheters.
  6. (1975). Anaerobic and aerobic skin bacteria before and after skin-disinfection with chlorhexidine: an experimental study in volunteers. doi
  7. (2006). Antimicrobials and the skin physiological and pathological flora. Curr Probl Dermatol doi
  8. (2002). AR: A clinical study comparing the skin antisepsis and safety of ChloraPrep, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and 2% aqueous chlorhexidine. doi
  9. (1991). Ashe KM: Effect of Topical Antimicrobial Treatment on Aerobic Bacteria in the Stratum Corneum of Human Skin. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy doi
  10. (2003). Ashe KM: Eradication of Resident Bacteria of Normal Human Skin by Antimicrobial Ointment. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy doi
  11. (1995). BW: Effects of terpenes and oleic acid as skin penetration enhancers towards 5-fluorouracil as assessed with time; permeation, partitioning and differential scanning calorimetry. doi
  12. (2006). BW: Molecular interactions between the penetration enhancer 1,8-cineole and human skin. doi
  13. (2001). Chemical and physical methods of enhancing the percutaneous absorption of antimicrobial agents.
  14. (1991). Combined effect of cyclic monoterpenes and ethanol on percutaneous absorption of diclofenac sodium. Drug Des Discov
  15. (2005). Comparative studies on the effects of water, ethanol and water/ethanol mixtures on chemical partitioning into porcine stratum corneum and silastic membrane. Toxicol In Vitro doi
  16. (1984). Cunliffe WJ: The microbial ecology of pilosebaceous units isolated from human skin. doi
  17. (2009). E: The battle against multi-resistant strains: Renaissance of antimicrobial essential oils as a promising force to fight hospital-acquired infections. J Craniomaxillofac Surg doi
  18. (2005). Effect of L-menthol and 1,8-cineole on phase behavior and molecular organization of SC lipids and skin permeation of zidovudine. doi
  19. (2006). Effect of physicochemical properties of cyclic terpenes on their ex vivo skin absorption and elimination kinetics. doi
  20. (2003). Eslick GD: Topical phytochemicals used to salvage the gangrenous lower limbs of type 1 diabetic patients. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice doi
  21. (2007). Evaluation of an eucalyptus oil containing topical drug delivery system for selected steroid hormones. doi
  22. (1989). Exploration of the microbial anatomy of normal human skin by using plasmid profiles of coagulase-negative staphylococci: search for the reservoir of resident skin flora. doi
  23. (1997). Faroqui MH: Novel approach to investigate a source of microbial contamination of central venous catheters. doi
  24. (1996). Gooris GS: Modes of action of terpene penetration enhancers in human skin; differential scanning calorimetry, small-angle X-ray diffraction and enhancer uptake studies. doi
  25. (1990). In vitro skin permeation and bioassay of chlorhexidine phosphanilate, a new antimicrobial agent. Pharm Res
  26. (2006). ING: Antibacterial essential oils in malodorous cancer patients: Clinical observations in 30 patients. Phytomedicine doi
  27. (2005). LopezCastellano A: Effect of chemical enhancers on the in vitro percutaneous absorption of sumatriptan succinate. doi
  28. (1997). Meachanism of trandermal transport of 5-fluorouracil by terpenes: carvone, 1,8-cineole and thymol. doi
  29. (2007). MH: epic2: National evidence-based guidelines for preventing healthcare-associated infections in NHS hospitals in England. J Hosp Infect doi
  30. (2008). PA: Antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine digluconate alone and in combination with eucalyptus oil, tea tree oil and thymol against planktonic and biofilm cultures of Staphylococcus epidermidis. doi
  31. (1997). Percutaneous absorption of a chlorhexidine digluconate solution. doi
  32. (2009). Permeation of chlorhexidine from alcoholic and aqueous solutions within excised human skin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother doi
  33. (2008). RC: Four country healthcare associated infection prevalence survey 2006: overview of the results. J Hosp Infect doi
  34. (2001). Sznitowska M: In vitro studies on penetration of terpenes from matrix-type transdermal systems through human skin. doi
  35. (2005). T: Evaluation of a 2% chlorhexidine gluconate in 70% isopropyl alcohol skin disinfectant. J Hosp Infect doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.