Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Optimisation of the Localisation Performance of Irregular Ambisonic Decoders for Multiple Off-Centre Listeners

By David J. Moore and Jonathan P. Wakefield


This paper presents a method for optimising the performance of irregular Ambisonic decoders for multiple offcentre listeners. New off-centre evaluation criteria are added to a multi objective fitness function, based on auditory localization theory, which guides a heuristic search algorithm to derive decoder parameter sets for the ITU 5-speaker layout. The new evaluation criteria are based upon Gerzon’s Metatheory of Auditory Localisation and have been modified to take into account off-centre listening positions. The derived decoders exhibit improved theoretical localisation performance for off-centre listeners. The theoretical results are supported by initial listening test results

Topics: QA76, T1, TA
Year: 2010
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (1992). Experience with Large Area 3-D Ambisonic Sound Systems”,
  2. (2008). Exploiting Human Spatial Resolution in Surround Sound Decoder Design.” Presented at the 125th Audio Engineering Society Convention,
  3. (2004). Further Study of Sound Field Coding with
  4. (1992). General Metatheory of Auditory Localisation.” Presented at the 92nd Audio Engineering Society Convention,
  5. (2006). Localization in Horizontal-Only Ambisonic Systems.” Presented at the 121st Audio Engineering Society Convention,
  6. (2007). Robust Two-Dimensional Surround Sound Reproduction for Nonuniform Loudspeaker Layouts.”
  7. (2007). Spatial Audio Quality Evaluation: Comparing Transaural,
  8. (2007). The Design and Detailed Analysis of First Order Ambisonic Decoders for the ITU layout.” Presented at the 122th Audio Engineering Society Convention,
  9. (2003). The Design and Optimisation of Surround Sound Decoders Using Heuristic Methods.”
  10. (2008). The Design of Ambisonic Decoders for the ITU 5.1 Layout with Even Performance Characteristics.” Presented at the 124th Audio Engineering Society Convention,
  11. (2007). The Design of Improved First Order Ambisonic Decoders by the Application of Range-Removal and
  12. (2009). The Development of a Design Tool for 5-Speaker Surround Sound Decoders”, PhD Thesis,

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.