Firms in inner areas of Leeds and London were surveyed to determine the type, extent and severity of their transport problems. The problems were compared with tlose of firms in outer control areas of both cities. The important inner area problems were: congestion and delays on the journey to work, on business and visitor trips, and on commercial vehicle trips; inadequate on-site and on-street parking at the firm and at the destination of business trips; public transport difficulties for the journey to work; on-site delays for commercial vehicles; and on-street loading.Altiough firms in all areas experienced similar types of problem, the effect of congestion and parking WaS more severe in the inner areas, and as expected problems were more severe in London than in the corresponding area of Leeds. Solutions applicable to the inner areas are therefore likely to be appropriate elsewhere. The most common effect of problems was lost time. There were also cases of reduced efficiency, lost business, vehicle scheduling difficulties and staffing implications such as turnover and recruitment and staff dissatisfaction. Management had difficulty costing the effects of problems; however, when estimates were made the costs incurred were often considerable. Problems were, for the most part, local or site specific, and solutions are likely to be found within the study areas or at individual firms. However, in the case of congestion and of parking availability away from the firm the problems are more widespread, suggesting that solutions need to extend beyond the study areas
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