This study compares aspects of behaviour in two long-stay resident groups with residual psychiatric difficulties. One group was residing on traditional psychiatric hospital wards\ud and the other group was based in a newly built bungalow complex set within the hospital grounds. This study compares behavioural profiles between these two resident groups.\ud Results indicate that bungalow residents showed significantly lower levels of psychiatric difficulty than their ‘ward-based’ counterparts. To explore this result further we conducted an examination of possible selection bias at the time of initial assessment. Historical\ud data on both groups were obtained from case notes and analysed to seek possible explanations for this result. These results are discussed with respect to the provision of mental health care in smaller retained hospital facilities and nursing practice, which emphasizes the provision of effective philosophies of care accentuating choice, a sense of autonomy and involvement in care
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