The importance of social exclusion in the context of congestion charging is discussed, and the groups most particularly at-risk identified. A new technique, based on generation and investigation of a synthetic population is introduced and used to establish the impacts on at-risk groups of six congestion charging schemes in Leeds. The distribution and severity of impacts are seen to depend crucially on the precise definition of the charge area, the basis of the charges and exemptions provided. Using the new technique, it can be seen how the impact on at-risk groups could be minimized without compromising the overall objectives of congestion charging. Further potential applications of the new technique are outlined
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