This paper reports an evaluation of both graph-based and fingerprint-based measures of structural similarity, when used for virtual screening of sets of 2D molecules drawn from the MDDR and ID Alert databases. The graph-based measures employ a new maximum common edge subgraph isomorphism algorithm, called RASCAL, with several similarity coefficients described previously for quantifying the similarity between pairs of graphs. The effectiveness of these graph-based searches is compared with that resulting from similarity searches using BCI, Daylight and Unity 2D fingerprints. Our results suggest that graph-based approaches provide an effective complement to existing fingerprint-based approaches to virtual screening.\u
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