Data is presented from virtual environment (VE) navigation studies that used building- and chessboard-type layouts. Participants learned by repeated navigation, spending several hours in each environment. While some participants quickly learned to navigate efficiently, others remained almost totally disoriented. In the virtual buildings this disorientation was illustrated by mean direction estimate errors of approximately 90°, and in the chessboard VEs disorientation was highlighted by the large number of rooms that some participants visited. Part of the cause of disorientation, and generally slow spatial learning, lies in the difficulty participants had learning the paths they had followed through the VEs
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