A stabilizing observer-based control algorithm for an in-wheel-motored vehicle is proposed, which generates direct yaw moment to compensate for the state deviations. The control scheme is based on a fuzzy rule-based body slip angle (beta) observer. In the design strategy of the fuzzy observer, the vehicle dynamics is represented by Takagi-Sugeno-like fuzzy models. Initially, local equivalent vehicle models are built using the linear approximations of vehicle dynamics for low and high lateral acceleration operating regimes, respectively. The optimal beta observer is then designed for each local model using Kalman filter theory. Finally, local observers are combined to form the overall control system by using fuzzy rules. These fuzzy rules represent the qualitative relationships among the variables associated with the nonlinear and uncertain nature of vehicle dynamics, such as tire force saturation and the influence of road adherence. An adaptation mechanism for the fuzzy membership functions has been incorporated to improve the accuracy and performance of the system. The effectiveness of this design approach has been demonstrated in simulations and in a real-time experimental settin
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