In this paper we describe an experimental technique developed to measure the deformation gradients and temperature in a single hot rolling pass of an AA3004 sample that was fitted with an insert. The insert had been previously hand engraved with a 1 Ã— 1 mm grid pitch, and the analysis of the data digitally captured from the image of the deformed grid enabled the calculation of the components of the deformation gradient tensor. Four steel pins prevented relative motion between the insert and the rest of the sample. No detachment was observed between insert and sample after rolling. The temperature was measured during rolling using two embedded thermocouples, one close to the surface and the other in the centerline. The commercial finite element code ABAQUS was used to create a three-dimensional model of the rolling process. The recorded temperature was compared to the numerical values evaluated after tuning the heat transfer coefficient. The shape of the grid after rolling was checked against the deformed mesh using different friction coefficients in order to obtain the optimum match. The unusually large length of the insert enabled the rolling process to be stopped halfway so that a picture of the roll-gap area could be obtained. This provided a partially deformed grid that represented the transient state during rolling. The experimentally determined deformation gradient in this area as well as in the steady-state area agreed well with the finite element predictions. Â© 2005 Society for Experimental Mechanics
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