Research has demonstrated time to be an important variable within an organization at an individual, group and cultural level of analysis (Francis-Smythe & Robertson, 1999; Schriber & Gutek, 1987; Gevers et al, 2006; Rutoski et al, 2007). In fact a number of researchers have called for further work to be done in this domain (Ancona, Goodman, Lawrence, & Tushman, 2001; George & Jones, 2000). In response to this call, this paper will explore the role of time in leadership and management. The importance organizations attach to time is only too clear when organizational economic goals and measures of performance (such as monthly targets, productivity measures) are considered. However, it is somewhat surprising that organizations have a limited capability to understand how time permeates and impacts in everyday work practices.\ud This paper will explore the role of time in leadership by introducing the notion of Temporal Intelligence (TI). TI is a developing concept that represents an individual difference factor in regards to a leader’s temporal practices. Specifically, this paper will present the findings from a qualitative research investigation into the role of time in leader-follower interactions.\ud There is concern within the contemporary research arena that a preponderance of attention is directed towards the outcomes of leadership effectiveness rather than relevant individual characteristics (Gawith & Flaxman, 2007; Judge & Bono, 2000; Rubin et al. 2005). The importance of operationizing leadership effectiveness as a research variable is reflected in the end-goal of this project. At the same time it is also recognised there is a need to identify a leader’s temporally related individual characteristics that may potentially provide a fruitful basis for explaining leadership as a phenomenon and predicting effectiveness; this has clear implications for selection and development processes
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