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Diurnal cycles of embolism formation and repair in petioles of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Chasselas)

By Vivian Zufferey, Hervé Cochard, Thierry Ameglio, Jean-Laurent Spring and Olivier Viret

Abstract

The impact of water deficit on stomatal conductance (g(s)), petiole hydraulic conductance (K(petiole)), and vulnerability to cavitation (PLC, percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity) in leaf petioles has been observed on field-grown vines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chasselas). Petioles were highly vulnerable to cavitation, with a 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity at a stem xylem water potential (Psi(x)) of -0.95 MPa, and up to 90% loss of conductivity at a Psi(x) of -1.5 MPa. K(petiole) described a daily cycle, decreasing during the day as water stress and evapotranspiration increased, then rising again in the early evening up to the previous morning's K(petiole) levels. In water-stressed vines, PLC increased sharply during the daytime and reached maximum values (70-90%) in the middle of the afternoon. Embolism repair occurred in petioles from the end of the day through the night. Indeed, PLC decreased in darkness in water-stressed vines. PLC variation in irrigated plants showed the same tendency, but with a smaller amplitude. The Chasselas cultivar appears to develop hydraulic segmentation, in which petiole cavitation plays an important role as a 'hydraulic fuse', thereby limiting leaf transpiration and the propagation of embolism and preserving the integrity of other organs (shoots and roots) during water stress. In the present study, progressive stomatal closure responded to a decrease in K(petiole) and an increase in cavitation events. Almost total closure of stomata (90%) was measured when PLC in petioles reached > 90%

Topics: HYDRAULIC CONDUCTANCE, STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE, WATER RELATION, XYLEM EMBOLISM, HYDRAULIQUE, [SDV.BV.BOT]Life Sciences [q-bio]/Vegetal Biology/Botanics
Publisher: 'Oxford University Press (OUP)'
Year: 2011
DOI identifier: 10.1093/jxb/err081
OAI identifier: oai:HAL:hal-00964790v1
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