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Investigating the effect of various film-forming polymers on the evaporation rate of a volatile component in a cosmetic formulation

By Carla Barnard


The topical application of many substances, including drugs, enzymes, moisturizers and fragrances, contributes largely to the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. These components are often volatile in nature and dissipate in a matter of hours. When considering the different types of slow release systems, an overwhelming variety of these systems is available. Each one of the systems is unique in a way, and is designed to perform a particular function, whether it facilitates the controlled release of an active into the body via the skin surface (transdermal delivery) or whether it reduces the rate of loss of an active from the skin surface to the surrounding environment. For the purpose of this study, a previously existing fixative formulation which is believed to reduce the rate of loss of an active component to the environment, through film formation on the skin surface, was investigated. Alternative ingredients or components were incorporated together with the original fixative formulation ingredients into an experimental design which investigates the effect of each group of the components present. 18 formulations with various concentrations of the components within the groups and specified upper and lower limits for each component were formulated. The fixative properties of the formulations were analysed through the incorporation of a fixed amount of a simple fragrance molecule, 4- methoxybenzaldehyde, into each formulation and evaporation studies were conducted in an environmental room at 28±1° C over a period of 5 hours followed by gas chromatography analysis and finally data analyses using statistical methods. The most efficient fixative formulation was established using regression analysis. The fragrance compound in this formulation was found to evaporate at a rate of 0.47 g/L per hour. The least efficient fixative formulation lead to the loss of 0.78 g/L of the fragrance component per hour. From the calculated fragrance concentrations, the rate constant for each individual fixative formulation could be calculated and response surface 8 modelling by backward regression was used in order to determine how each component contributes to the rate of loss of the fragrance compound. Since the sum of the original ingredient and its alternative was constant, each of the original ingredients was coupled directly to its alternative and no conclusion could be made about the contribution of individual components. By increasing the concentration of Hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) 100K and its alternative HPC 140K, while keeping the effects of the other components constant, a decrease in the rate of fragrance loss was observed. The same conclusion could be made when increasing the concentrations of PEG-12 Dimethicone and its alternative cetyl dimethicone (decreases the evaporation rate). An interaction took place between HPC 100K and PEG-12 dimethicone and their alternatives. The negative effect was, however, not as strong as the combined positive effect on the rate of fragrance loss of the individual components HPC and PEG-12 dimethicone. Evidence suggested that the removal of the components polyvinylpyrrolidone and its alternative, polyurethane-32 (Baycusan® C1003), would improve the effectiveness of the fixative formulation in terms of its slow release properties. A confirmation experiment established that the exclusion of these components from the fixative formulation does improve the “slow release” properties thereof. A larger, more intricate design is required to investigate the effect of each one of the individual components and where the sum of the components (original and its alternative) is not constan

Topics: Cosmetic delivery systems, Controlled release preparations, Cosmetics, Polymers, Drugs -- Controlled release
Publisher: Faculty of Science
Year: 2010
OAI identifier:
Provided by: SEALS Digital commons
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