Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Phonographic neighbors, not orthographic neighbors, determine word naming latencies\ud

By James S. Adelman and G. D. A. (Gordon D. A.) Brown


The orthographic neighborhood size (N) of a word—the number of words that can be formed from that word by replacing one letter with another in its place—has been found to have facilitatory effects in word naming. The orthographic neighborhood hypothesis attributes this facilitation to interactive effects. A phonographic neighborhood hypothesis, in contrast, attributes the effect to lexical print-sound conversion. According to the phonographic neighborhood hypothesis, phonographic neighbors (words differing in one letter and one phoneme, e.g., stove and stone) should facilitate naming, and other orthographic neighbors (e.g., stove and shove) should not. The predictions of these two hypotheses are tested. Unique facilitatory phonographic N effects were found in four sets of word naming mega-study data, along with an absence of facilitatory orthographic N effects. These results implicate print-sound conversion—based on consistent phonology—in neighborhood effects rather than word-letter feedback. \ud \u

Topics: BF
Publisher: Psychonomic Society
Year: 2007
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (1987). (in press). The English Lexicon Project. doi
  2. (1989). A distributed, developmental model of word recognition and naming. doi
  3. (1977). Access to the internal lexicon. doi
  4. (1982). An activationverification model for letter and word recognition: The word-superiority effect. doi
  5. (1981). An interactive activation model of context effects in letter perception: Part 1. An account of basic findings. doi
  6. (1987). Anatomical differences between nose, palm, and foot, or, the body in question: Further dissection of the processes of sub-lexical spelling-sound translation. In
  7. (1997). Bringing computational models of word naming down to the item level. doi
  8. (2001). DRC: A dual route cascaded model of visual word recognition and reading aloud. doi
  9. (1989). Frequency and neighborhood effects on lexical access: Activation or search? doi
  10. (1992). Frequency and neighborhood effects on lexical access: Lexical similarity or orthographic redundancy? doi
  11. (2001). Identical words are read differently in different languages. doi
  12. (2001). L'influence du voisinage orthographique lors de la reconnaisance des mots écrits [The influence of orthographic neighbourhood on visual word recognition]. Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale/Canadian doi
  13. (1981). Making up materials is a confounded nuisance, or: Will we be able to run any psycholinguistic experiments at all in doi
  14. (1999). Modeling lexical decision and word naming as a retrieval process. doi
  15. (1993). Neighborhood effects in visual word recognition: Facilitatory or inhibitory? doi
  16. (1995). Neighborhood size effect in naming: Lexical activation or sublexical correspondences? doi
  17. (2002). Neighbourhood density effects in reading aloud: New insights from simulations with the DRC model. doi
  18. (1997). Orthographic and phonological neighborhoods in naming: Not all neighbors are equally influential in orthographic space. doi
  19. (1999). Orthographic neighbourhood effects in parallel distributed processing models. doi
  20. (1969). Perceptual recognition as a function of meaningfulness of stimulus material. doi
  21. (2005). Phonological neighbors speed visual word processing: Evidence from multiple tasks. doi
  22. (1970). Processes in word recognition. doi
  23. (2003). Strategic effects in word naming: Examining the routeemphasis and time-criterion accounts. doi
  24. (1992). Testing a semistochastic variant of the interactive activation model in different word recognition experiments. doi
  25. (1997). The effect of orthographic similarity on lexical retrieval: Resolving neighborhood conflicts. doi
  26. (2000). The English Lexicon Project: A web-based repository of descriptive and behavioral measures for 40,481 English words and nonwords.
  27. (2004). The influence of phonological neighborhood on visual word perception. doi
  28. (1998). The utility of item-level analyses in model evaluation: A reply to Seidenberg and Plaut. doi
  29. (1998). Two routes or one in reading aloud? A connectionist dual-route model. doi
  30. (1996). Understanding normal and impaired reading: Computational principles in quasi-regular domains. doi
  31. (2004). Visual word recognition of single-syllable words.
  32. (1989). Word recognition and naming: A mega study.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.