Background: Little information is available on leptin concentrations in individuals with IGT. This study aims to determine and correlate leptin levels to anthropometric measures of obesity in prediabetic, (IFG and IGT), type 2 diabetic and normoglycaemic Saudis.\ud Methods: 308 adult Saudis (healthy controls n = 80; pre-diabetes n = 86; Type 2 diabetes n = 142) participated. Anthropometric parameters were measured and fasting blood samples taken. Serum insulin was analysed, using a solid phase enzyme amplified sensitivity immunoassay and also leptin concentrations, using radio-immunoassay. The remaining blood parameters were determined using\ud standard laboratory procedures.\ud Results: Leptin levels of diabetic and pre-diabetic men were higher than in normoglycaemic men (12.4 [3.2–72] vs 3.9 [0.8–20.0] ng/mL, (median [interquartile range], p = 0.0001). In females, leptin levels were significantly higher in pre-diabetic subjects (14.09 [2.8–44.4] ng/mL) than in normoglycaemic subjects (10.2 [0.25–34.8] ng/mL) (p = 0.046). After adjustment for BMI and\ud gender, hip circumference was associated with log leptin (p = 0.006 with R2 = 0.086) among all subjects.\ud Conclusion: Leptin is associated with measures of adiposity, hip circumference in particular, in the\ud non-diabetic state among Saudi subjects. The higher leptin level among diabetics and pre-diabetics is not related to differences in anthropometric measures of obesity
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