Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Duration judgements in patients with schizophrenia

By Brita Elvevåg, Teresa McCormack, A. Gilbert, G. D. A. (Gordon D. A.) Brown, Daniel R. (Daniel Roy) Weinberger and Terry E. Goldberg


Background. The ability to encode time cues underlies many cognitive processes. In the light of schizophrenic patients' compromised cognitive abilities in a variety of domains, it is noteworthy that there are numerous reports of these patients displaying impaired timing abilities. However, the timing intervals that patients have been evaluated on in prior studies vary considerably in magnitude (e.g. 1 s, 1 min, 1 h etc.).\ud \ud Method. In order to obviate differences in abilities in chronometric counting and place minimal demands on cognitive processing, we chose tasks that involve making judgements about brief durations of time (<1 s).\ud \ud Results. On a temporal generalization task, patients were less accurate than controls at recognizing a standard duration. The performance of patients was also significantly different from controls on a temporal bisection task, in which participants categorized durations as short or long. Although time estimation may be closely intertwined with working memory, patients' working memory as measured by the digit span task did not correlate significantly with their performance on the duration judgement tasks. Moreover, lowered intelligence scores could not completely account for the findings.\ud \ud Conclusions. We take these results to suggest that patients with schizophrenia are less accurate at estimating brief time periods. These deficits may reflect dysfunction of biopsychological timing processes

Topics: RB, BF
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Year: 2003
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (1984). A longitudinal study of time estimation in psychotic disorders. doi
  2. (1979). A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. doi
  3. (1971). Abilities: Their Structure, Growth and Action. doi
  4. (1999). Abnormal cingulate modulation of fronto-temporal connectivity in schizophrenia. doi
  5. (1986). Affinity for the dopamine D2 receptor predicts neuroleptic potency in decreasing the speed of an internal clock. doi
  6. (1997). Age and IQ effects on stimulus and response timing. doi
  7. (1950). An evaluation of experimental methods of time judgment. doi
  8. (1997). Are there dissociable roles of the mesostriatal and mesolimbocortical dopamine systems on temporal information processing in humans ? doi
  9. (1990). Assessing Adolescent and Adult Intelligence. Allyn &
  10. (1977). Bisection of temporal intervals. doi
  11. (1993). Cerebellar involvement in the explicit representation of temporal information. doi
  12. (1997). Cerebellar timing systems. doi
  13. (1995). Cerebellum and schizophrenia: a selective review. doi
  14. (1987). Cholinergic modulation of the content of temporal memory. doi
  15. (2000). Cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia displaying preserved and compromised intellect. doi
  16. (1998). Cortical networks underlying mechanisms of time perception.
  17. (1993). Decisions and memories in human timing.
  18. (1999). Defining the phenotype of schizophrenia: cognitive dysmetria and its neural mechanisms. doi
  19. (1999). Developmental changes in time estimation: comparing childhood and old age. doi
  20. (1974). Discrimination of stimulus duration and d-amphetamine: a psychophysical analysis. doi
  21. (1973). Duration judgements in patients with schizophrenia 1259Institute for Personality and Ability Testing
  22. (1995). Duration processing after frontal lobe lesions. doi
  23. (2002). Effects of aging on absolute identification of duration. doi
  24. (1979). Effects of trifluoperazine, chlorpromazine, and haloperidol upon temporal information processing by schizophrenic patients. doi
  25. (1993). Estimating WAIS-R FSIQ from the National Adult Reading Test-Revised in normal subjects. doi
  26. (1983). Estimation of time and the subclassification of schizophrenic disorders. doi
  27. (1990). Estimation of time by patients with positive and negative schizophrenia. doi
  28. (1992). Evidence of dysfunction of a prefrontal-limbic network in schizophrenia: a magnetic resonance imaging and regional cerebral blood flow study of discordant monozygotic twins. doi
  29. (1996). Exploring the domain of cerebellar timing systems. doi
  30. (1995). Genetic risk for neuropsychological impairment in schizophrenia: a study of monozygotic twins discordant and concordant for the disorder. doi
  31. (1991). Human bisection at the geometric mean. doi
  32. (1991). Human performance on an analogue of an interval bisection task.
  33. (1994). Impaired attention, genetics, and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. doi
  34. (1999). Individual differences in working memory capacity and what they tell us about controlled attention, general fluid intelligence, and functions of the prefrontal cortex. doi
  35. (1968). Individual variations in time judgement and the concept of an internal clock. doi
  36. (1984). Information processing and attentional functioning in the development course of schizophrenic disorders. doi
  37. (1998). Information-processing characteristics of explicit time estimation by patients with schizophrenia and normal controls. doi
  38. (1989). Is there a common dopaminergic basis of time perception and reaction time? doi
  39. (1989). Memory disorders and subjective time estimation. doi
  40. (2000). Memory for temporal order in patients with schizophrenia. doi
  41. (1990). Memory for the temporal order of events in patients with frontal lesions and amnesic patients. doi
  42. (1981). Methamphetamine and time estimation. doi
  43. (1999). Neuropharmacological evidence for different timing mechanisms in humans.
  44. (1996). Neuropharmacology of timing and time perception. doi
  45. (1995). Neuropsychological evidence for fronto-striatal dysfunction in schizophrenia. doi
  46. (1999). Neurotransmitter interactions in schizophrenia-therapeutic implications. doi
  47. (1987). Nucleus basalis magnocellularis and medial septal area lesions differentially impair temporal memory. doi
  48. (1987). Nutrients that modify the speed of the internal clock and memory storage processes. doi
  49. O’Connor (2000). Time estimation by patients with frontal lesions and by Korsakoff amnesics. doi
  50. (1993). On dopaminergic modulation of temporal information processing. doi
  51. (1992). Perceptual bisection in rats: the effects of physostigmine, scopolamine and pirenzepine. doi
  52. (1996). Perceptual timing in cerebellar degeneration. doi
  53. (1992). Performance of repetitive wrist movements in Parkinson’s disease. doi
  54. (1992). Pharmacologic properties of the internal clock underlying time perception in humans. doi
  55. (1984). Properties of the internal clock. In Timing and Time Perception
  56. (1976). Psychomotor correlates of behavior disorder.
  57. (1995). Remoxipride versus haloperidol in healthy volunteers: psychometric performance and subjective tolerance profiles. doi
  58. (1977). Scalar expectancy theory and Weber’s law in animal timing. doi
  59. (1984). Scalar timing in memory. In Timing and Time Perception. doi
  60. (1997). Scalar timing in temporal generalization in humans with longer stimulus durations. doi
  61. (1996). Schizophrenia and cognitive dysmetria: a positron-emission tomography study of dysfunctional prefrontal–thalamic–cerebellar circuitry. doi
  62. (1998). Sequencing and timing operations of the basal ganglia.
  63. (1999). Short-term memory in time interval production. doi
  64. (1995). Spatial working memory deficits in the relatives of schizophrenic patients. doi
  65. (1998). Specific neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenic patients with preserved intellectual function. doi
  66. (1996). Stimulus range effects in temporal bisection by humans. doi
  67. (1995). Stimulus spacing effects in temporal bisection in humans. doi
  68. (1999). Subjective lengthening during repeated testing of a simple temporal discrimination. doi
  69. (2003). Temporal bisection in children. doi
  70. (1997). Temporal cognition. doi
  71. (1990). Temporal discrimination in schizophrenic and affective disorders: evidence for a dopamine-dependent internal clock. doi
  72. (1992). Temporal discrimination is abnormal in Parkinson’s disease. doi
  73. (1967). Temporal experience in depressive states and schizophrenia. doi
  74. (1994). Temporal generalization in humans: three further studies. doi
  75. (1992). Temporal generalization in humans. doi
  76. (1982). Temporal generalization. doi
  77. (1975). Temporal information processing and psychopathology. doi
  78. (1973). Temporal information processing in schizophrenia. doi
  79. (1971). Temporal orientation and time estimation in chronic schizophrenics. doi
  80. (1998). Temporal processing in the basal ganglia. doi
  81. (1996). The ‘3 Rs’ and neuropsychological function in schizophrenia: an empirical test of the matching fallacy. doi
  82. (1994). The ability of amnesic subjects to estimate time intervals. doi
  83. (1996). The accuracy and precision of timing of self-paced, repetitive movements in subjects with Parkinson’s disease. doi
  84. (1989). The Continuous Performance Test, Identical Pairs Version: II. Contrasting attentional profile in schizophrenic and depressed patients. doi
  85. (1983). The differential effects of haloperidol and methamphetamine on time estimation in the rat. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) doi
  86. (1976). The effects of d-amphetamine on temporal discrimination in the rat. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) doi
  87. (1978). The measurement of differential deficit. doi
  88. (1965). The psychopathology of time judgment.
  89. (1996). The role of attention in time estimation processes. doi
  90. (1956). The time sense: estimation of one second duration by schizophrenic patients. doi
  91. (1984). The Wide Range Achievement Test – Revised Administration Manual (Revised Edition). Jastak Assoc.
  92. (1975). Time and affect in psychopathology. doi
  93. (1976). Time and schizophrenia. doi
  94. (1980). Time estimation among schizophrenics. doi
  95. (1993). Time estimation and concurrent nontemporal processing: specific interference from short-term-memory demands. doi
  96. (1966). Time estimation and the nosology of schizophrenia. doi
  97. (1983). Time estimation by healthy subjects and schizophrenic patients: a methodological study. doi
  98. (1993). Time estimation in different memory disorders. doi
  99. (2001). Time estimation in schizophrenia: an fMRI study at adjusted levels of difficulty. doi
  100. (1962). Time judgement and schizophrenia: psychophysical method as a relevant contextual factor. doi
  101. (1977). Time perception and schizophrenia. doi
  102. (1989). Timing functions of the cerebellum. doi
  103. (1997). Towards a neurobiology of temporal cognition: advances and challenges. doi
  104. (1997). Visuospatial working memory in patients with schizophrenia. doi
  105. (1994). WAIS-R short forms in chronic schizophrenia. doi
  106. (1981). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Revised. Psychological Corporation: doi
  107. (1987). Wechsler Memory Scale – Revised. Psychological Corporation: doi
  108. (1998). Working and strategic memory deficits in schizophrenia. doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.