Location of Repository

Modelling diverse root density dynamics and deep nitrogen uptake — a simple approach

By Anders Pedersen, Kefeng Zhang, Kristian Thorup-Kristensen and Lars Stoumann Jensen

Abstract

We present a 2-D model for simulation of root density and plant nitrogen (N) uptake for crops grown in agricultural systems, based on a modification of the root density equation originally proposed by Gerwitz and Page in J Appl Ecol 11:773–781, (1974). A root system form parameter was introduced to describe the distribution of root length vertically and horizontally in the soil profile. The form parameter can vary from 0 where root density is evenly distributed through the soil profile, to 8 where practically all roots are found near the surface. The root model has other components describing root features, such as specific root length and plant N uptake kinetics. The same approach is used to distribute root length horizontally, allowing simulation of root growth and plant N uptake in row crops. The rooting depth penetration rate and depth distribution of root density were found to be the most important parameters controlling crop N uptake from deeper soil layers. The validity of the root distribution model was tested with field data for white cabbage, red beet, and leek. The model was able to simulate very different root distributions, but it was not able to simulate increasing root density with depth as seen in the experimental results for white cabbage. The model was able to simulate N depletion in different soil layers in two field studies. One included vegetable crops with very different rooting depths and the other compared effects of spring wheat and winter wheat. In both experiments variation in spring soil N availability and depth distribution was varied by the use of cover crops. This shows the model sensitivity to the form parameter value and the ability of the model to reproduce N depletion in soil layers. This work shows that the relatively simple root model developed, driven by degree days and simulated crop growth, can be used to simulate crop soil N uptake and depletion appropriately in low N input crop production systems, with a requirement of few measured parameters

Topics: SB
Publisher: Springer Netherlands
Year: 2010
OAI identifier: oai:wrap.warwick.ac.uk:939

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. 2006a Root growth and nitrogen uptake of carrot, early cabbage, onion and lettuce following a range of green manures. doi
  2. 2006b Effect of deep and shallow root systems on the dynamics of soil inorganic N during 3-year crop rotations. doi
  3. (1978). A
  4. (1982). A and Barnes A doi
  5. (2003). A and Dusek D A doi
  6. (2003). An overview of the crop model stics. doi
  7. (2001). Are differences in root growth of nitrogen catch crops important for their ability to reduce soil nitrate-N content, and how can this be measured?
  8. (1994). Capture of nitrate from soil by wheat in relation to root length, nitrogen inflow and availability. doi
  9. (2007). Comparing different approaches to calculate the effects of heterogeneous root distribution on nutrient uptake: a case study on subsoil nitrate uptake by a barley root system. doi
  10. (2000). Daisy: an open soil-crop-atmosphere system model. doi
  11. (1974). Empirical Mathematical-Model to Describe Plant Root Systems. doi
  12. (1980). Influence of the spatial distribution of nitrate on the uptake of N by plants: A review and a model for rooting depth. doi
  13. (2000). Inverse Estimation of Parameters in a Nitrogen Model Using Field Data. Soil Sci. doi
  14. (2001). Minirhizotron observations of the spatial distribution of the maize root system. doi
  15. (1996). Modelling and measurement of the effects of fertilizer-N and crop residue incorporation on N-dynamics in vegetable cropping. doi
  16. (2001). Modelling Nresponse of field vegetable crops grown under diverse conditions with N_ABLE: A review. doi
  17. (1997). Modelling root growth of wheat as the linkage between crop and soil.
  18. (2005). Root characteristics of selected field crops: Data from the Wageningen Rhizolab doi
  19. (2003). Root Development and Absorption of Ammonium and Nitrate from the Rhizosphere. doi
  20. (1996). Root growth dynamics of Brussels sprouts (Brassica olearacea var. gemmifera) and leeks (Allium porrum L.) as reflected by root length, root colour and UV fluorescence. doi
  21. (2000). Root growth of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. botrytis) under unstressed conditions: Measurement and modelling. doi
  22. (1989). Root growth, macro-nutrient uptake dynamics and soil fertility requirements of a high yielding winter oilseed rape crop. doi
  23. (2006). Root length density and water uptake distributions of winter wheat under sub-irrigatio. doi
  24. (2007). Root penetration rate - a benchmark to identify soil and plant limitations to rooting depth in wheat. doi
  25. (2004). Root Typ: a generic model to depict and analyse the root system architecture. doi
  26. (1989). Simulation of ecophsiological processes of growth in several annual crops. Pudoc: Wageningen,The Netherlands.
  27. (2000). Simulation of nitrate-nitrogen dynamics for cropping systems with different rooting depths. doi
  28. (1991). Simulation of nitrogen dynamics and biomass production in winter wheat using the Danish simulation model daisy. doi
  29. (1996). Soil mineral nitrogen availability to young maize plants as related to root length density distribution and fertilizer application method.
  30. (1998). Temporal and spatial root development of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis L.).
  31. (2004). Uptake of (15)N labeled nitrate by root systems of sweet corn, carrot and white cabbage from 0.2 to 2.5 meters depth. doi
  32. (1999). Vertical and horizontal development of the root system of carrots following green manure.
  33. (2009). Winter wheat roots grow twice as deep as spring wheat roots, is this important for N uptake and N leaching loss? Plant and Soil (DOI: 10.1007/s11104-009-9898-z) Thorup-Kristensen K and van den Boogaard R doi
  34. (1960). Wurzelatlas mitteleuräischer Ackerunkrüter und Kulturpflanzen.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.