A spiral electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) is efficient in eddy current generation and has been used for surface defect inspection using Rayleigh waves or thickness gauging based on plane waves in echo mode. Measured and calculated particle velocities and directivities are presented. It is found that the shear wave is not predominantly a plane wave. It has zero amplitude on the axis of the generation EMAT and has maximum amplitude at the critical angle. The shear wave could be used in the steel industry for both internal and surface defect inspections together with Rayleigh wave
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