Despite pronouncements over the years of the end of social democracy, in 2007, the left in both France & Italy revisited the ideology, engaging in introspection & redefinition to update it. Since then, social democracy has come to be seen as practically synonymous with renewal & modernity. It tends to be identified with such institutional means as corporatism or nationalization & planning-based policy paradigms such as Keynesianism. Following an examination of social democracy in relation to globalization & New Labour, this paper evaluates the future of social democracy in terms of the means-orientated approaches through which its political aims have been forwarded in different national contexts. Adapted from the source document
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