Location of Repository

Constructing a refugee: the state, NGOs and gendered experiences of asylum in the Czech Republic

By Alice Szczepaniková


This study is an exploration of an institutionalised world that refugees inhabit in today’s Europe. It argues that the institutional system that organises the reception of refugees and their settlement in a receiving country is based on historically and politically contingent constructions of “a refugee”. The research was conducted in the Czech Republic – an emerging country of immigration and asylum at the semiperiphery of the European Union. It draws on qualitative empirical data generated in interviews and participant observations among state officials, intergovernmental and nongovernmental workers, asylum seekers and refugees from Armenia, Belarus and Chechnya. The thesis brings together the key actors that shape the construction of “a refugee” and examines the key sites of the refugee system where this construction takes place: asylum and immigration legislation, refugee determination process, refugee camps and nongovernmental spaces of assistance and public representation of refugees. “A refugee” is analysed as an idealised concept that underlies asylum policymaking; as an object of governance that shapes institutional practices; and as a lived and performed gendered experience that forms and transforms identities. The dominant view of refugees as people of little or no choice is challenged by presenting them as knowledgeable actors who act strategically in an unevenly contoured terrain of the refugee system. Also the view of institutions as operating in a consistent and unified manner is questioned. Their actions are described as often contradictory and dissenting voices are incorporated into the analysis. Moreover, the institutions of the refugee system are presented as tied together by mutually constitutive relationships in the context of unequal power relations

Topics: DJK
OAI identifier: oai:wrap.warwick.ac.uk:2044

Suggested articles



  1. (2005). 15 let jsou uprchlíci u nás: Sborník prací vycházejících z dat za období
  2. (2005). 15 let mezi uprchlíky [15 years among refugees]. Přes: uprchlický čtvrtletník
  3. (2000). A glossary of feminist theory:
  4. (1999). A new asylum regime in Europe. In
  5. (2005). A place at the table: The role of NGOS in refugee protection: International advocacy and policy-making.
  6. (1995). A qualitative assessment of the living standards of the Armenian population,
  7. (2003). A small corner of hell: Dispatches from Chechnya. Chicago & London:
  8. (2005). Agents of change or passive victims: The impact of welfare states (the case of the Netherlands) on refugees.
  9. (2004). Analysis of documents and records. In
  10. (2006). Analysis of the court asylum decisions in the Czech Republic.
  11. (2004). Analyzing documentary realities. In
  12. (1992). Anthropology and the study of refugees.
  13. (1997). Anthropology of policy: Critical perspectives on governance and power. London and
  14. (2001). Arméni v České republice: Výzkumná zpráva pro Ministerstvo Vnitra [Armenians in the Czech Republic: Report for the Ministry of Interior]. Praha: Etnologický institut AV ČR.
  15. (2002). Asylum and the lessons of history.
  16. (2007). Asylum in the European Union: A study of the implementation of the Qualification Directive. Brussels: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
  17. (2007). Asylum levels and trends in industrialised countries,
  18. (2004). Asylum seekers and the state. The politics of protection in a security-conscious world.
  19. (2005). At the extremes of exclusion: Deportation, detention and dispersal.
  20. (1997). Azyl a uprchlictví v mezinárodním právu [Asylum and refugees in international law]. Brno: Masarykova univerzita.
  21. (2008). Azylové řízení a azylanti - datové údaje [Asylum proceedings and recognized refugees - data sources]. Retrieved
  22. (2006). Because we are refugees”: Utilizing a legal label (No.
  23. Being a Refugee: Age, gender and diversity mainstreaming report 2007. Budapest: United Nations High Commissioner, Regional Representation for Central Europe.
  24. (2007). Belarus: Events of 2006. Retrieved September,
  25. (2002). Belarus: Human rights developments in 2001. Retrieved
  26. (2007). Běloruská emigrace v Československu (1918–1938) [Belarusian emigration in Czechoslovakia (1918-1938)]. Soudobé dějiny XIV.
  27. (2005). Běloruský exil v demokratickém Československu a České republice [Belarusian exile in democratic Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic]. Prague: Člověk v tísni, o.p.s. Komárková,
  28. (2004). Between victim and agent: Women's ambivalent empowerment in displacement. In
  29. (2007). Beyond ‘do no harm’: The challenge of constructing ethical relationships in refugee research.
  30. (1993). Beyond charity: International cooperation and the global refugee crisis.
  31. (2003). Beyond gender: Towards a feminist analysis of humanitarianism and development in Sri Lanka.
  32. (1999). Bez hrdinů [Without Heroes].
  33. (2004). Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan through peace and war.
  34. (1993). Bodies that matter: On the discursive limits of "sex".
  35. (2004). Bodies, shrines, and roads: Violence, (im)mobility and displacement in Sri Lanka.
  36. (2005). Boj o zásuvky [Struggle around wall sockets] [Electronic Version]. Infoservis from http://zpravodajstvi.ecn.cz/index.stm?apc=zzvx2-243683&x=220702.
  37. (1996). Braving a new world: Cambodian (Khmer) refugees in an American city.
  38. (2006). Bringing life into the “states of exception”: Chechen asylum seekers in a Czech refugee camp.
  39. (1999). Broken promises - forgotten principles. An ECRE evaluation of the development of EU minimum standards for refugee protection: Tampere
  40. (2003). Buddha is hiding: Refugees, citizenship, the new America. Berkeley and Los Angeles:
  41. (2005). Bush calls Belarus Europe's last dictatorship [Electronic Version]. NewsMax.com Wires,
  42. (1986). Calculated kindness: Refugees and America's half-open door,
  43. (1988). Can there be a feminist ethnography?
  44. (2008). Cesty z pasti neregulérního pobytu cizinců v ČR [Ways out of the trap of irregularity of foreigners' stay in the Czech Republic]. In
  45. (2000). Challenges facing asylum systems and asylum policy development in Europe: preliminary lessons learned from the Central European and Baltic States.
  46. (2003). Changing roles of NGOs in refugee assistance. In
  47. (2008). Chechen migration flows to Europe - A statistical perspective.
  48. (2007). Chechnya - Russia's 'war on terror'. London and
  49. (2008). Civic sector and organizational identity: Formation of civic identities after
  50. (2007). Cizincům schází dostupnost kvalitní bezplatné sociální a právní pomoci, říká ředitel OPU [Foreigners lack access to qualified and free social and legal assistance, says director of OPU].
  51. (2003). Cizinec musí dokázat, že sem patří [A foreigner must prove that he belongs]. Retrieved October,
  52. (1999). Classifications, persons and policies: Refugees and Swedish welfare bureaucracy. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation,
  53. (2005). Compassion and repression: The moral economy of immigration policies in France.
  54. (2004). Conceptualizing gender, nation, and class in post-Soviet Belarus In K. Kuehnast & C. Nechemias (Eds.), Post-Soviet women encountering transition nation building, economic survival, and civic activism
  55. (1994). Constructing a productive other: Discourse theory and the Convention refugee hearing. Amsterdam and Philadelphia:
  56. (2006). Contributions to gender sensitive social work with female recognized refugees. Prague: Organization for Aid to Refugees.
  57. (2004). Council of the European Union.
  58. (2007). Critical evidence: The politics of trauma in French asylum policies.
  59. (2006). Crossing the fringes of Europe: Transit migration in the EU’s neighbourhood
  60. (2008). Cultural aspects of Chechen integration in Poland.
  61. (1996). Cultural citizenship as subject making: Immigrants negotiate racial and cultural boundaries in the United States.
  62. (2005). Culture of exception: Sociology facing the camp.
  63. (1993). Defining gender in a second exile: Palestinian women in West Berlin. In
  64. (2004). Demography and rights: Women, children and access to asylum.
  65. (1998). Detention of asylum seekers in Europe. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
  66. (2005). Disappearances” and abductions in the Chechen Republic. Retrieved October,
  67. (2008). Does this mean you're not going to come visit me anymore?": An inquiry into an ethics of reciprocity and positionality in feminist ethnographic research.
  68. (1987). Doing gender.
  69. (1995). Domestic violence as gender persecution: Policing the borders of nation, race, and gender
  70. (2007). Dynamika obrazu uprchlíků v médiích [Dynamics of the image of refugees in the media]. In
  71. (1995). East-West migration in the Czech Republic.
  72. (1999). Engendering forced migration: Theory and practice (pp. xii-xviii).
  73. (1999). Engendering forced migration: Theory and practice.
  74. (2000). Engendering the state in refugee women's claims for asylum. In
  75. (1999). Eritrean Canadian refugee households as sites of gender renegotiation. In
  76. (1989). Escape from violence: Conflict and the refugee crisis in the developing world. New York and Oxford:
  77. (2007). Ethical guidelines.
  78. (1996). Ethics, national sovereignty and the control of immigration.
  79. (2000). Ethnic identity and gender roles in flux: The adaptation of Bosnian refugees to Austrian Programs of humanitarian relief and economic integration: 1992-1999.
  80. (1995). Ethnography: Principles in practice. London and
  81. (2002). EU enlargement and the challenge of policy transfer: The case of refugee policy.
  82. (2005). Europe’s last dictatorship: The roots and perspectives of authoritarianism in ‘White Russia’.
  83. (1999). European asylum and refugee policy after the Treaty of Amsterdam: The birth of a new regime? In
  84. (2005). European refugee policy: Is there such a thing? Retrieved
  85. (2000). Explaining migration: A critical view.
  86. (2005). Families and clans in Ingushetia and Chechnya. A fieldwork report.
  87. (1989). Family and personal networks in international migration: Recent development and new agendas.
  88. (1993). Family tightrope.
  89. (1996). Feminist dilemmas in fieldwork.
  90. (2001). Fifty years of refugee studies: From theory to policy.
  91. (2003). Forced migration and the anthropological response.
  92. (1981). Framing refugees as clients.
  93. (2006). from http://www.britsoc.co.uk/user_doc/Appendix_Statement%20of%20Ethical%2 0Practice_March%2005.doc
  94. (2008). from http://www.czso.cz/csu/cizinci.nsf/datove_udaje/ciz_rizeni_azyl
  95. (2008). from http://www.czso.cz/csu/cizinci.nsf/kapitola/ciz_pocet_cizincu CSO. (2008b). Státní občanství ČR nabytá během roku, podle předchozího státního občanství;
  96. (2008). from http://www.memo.ru/eng/news/2007/01/183.html MFA.
  97. (2008). from http://www.rozhlas.cz/ostrava/aktualne/_zprava/271048
  98. (2007). from http://www.unhcr.cz/dokumenty/analysisof-the-court-asylum-decisions.pdf Větrovský,
  99. (2004). From refugee camps to gated communities: Biopolitics and the end of the city.
  100. (2004). From the conflict zone: Bulletin of human rights center "Memorial"
  101. (1999). Gender and immigration.
  102. (2000). Gender and international migration in Europe: Employment, welfare, and politics.
  103. (2000). Gender and migration.
  104. (2000). Gender and refugee status.
  105. (2006). Gender mainstreaming and its consequences in the European Union. Retrieved September,
  106. (2005). Gender relations in a refugee camp: A case of Chechens seeking asylum in the Czech Republic.
  107. (2002). Gender relations, transnational ties and rituals among Bosnian refugees.
  108. (1990). Gender trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity. London and
  109. (2003). Gender, globalization, and postsocialism: The Czech Republic after communism.
  110. (2003). Gendered actors in Migration. In
  111. (2002). Gendered Lives: Transitions and turning points in personal, family, and historical time.
  112. (1994). Gendered transitions.
  113. (2002). Global changes in asylum regimes. Basingstoke and
  114. (1998). Globalization: The human consequences.
  115. (2005). Government Council for Human Rights.
  116. (2002). Growth challenges and government policies in Armenia: World Bank.
  117. Guidelines on the treatment of Chechen internally displaced persons (IDPs), asylum seekers
  118. (2004). Hanging out' with forced migrants: Methodological and ethical challenges. Forced Migration Review(21),
  119. (2003). Harmonization and burden redistribution in the two Europes.
  120. (1996). Heaven or hell? Asylum policies and refugees
  121. (1998). Homo Sacer: Sovereign power and bare life.
  122. (2006). Human Rights in the OSCE Region: Europe, Central Asia and North America, Report
  123. (2002). Humanitarianism and representations of the refugee.
  124. (2007). I know what you're doing’, reflexivity and methods in Refugee Studies. Refugee Survey Quarterly,
  125. (2004). Identities and the sense of belonging: Iranian women activists in exile. In
  126. (2004). Immigration and asylum: A high politics agenda. In
  127. (1997). Immigration theory for a new century: Some problems and opportunities.
  128. (2006). Impact of immigration detention and temporary protection on the mental health of refugees.
  129. (1986). Imposing aid: Emergency assistance to refugees.
  130. (1995). In search of the locus of trust: The social world of the refugee camp.
  131. (2005). Information and Cooperation Forum (ICF): Final Report.
  132. (2005). Integrace azylantů a efektivita státního integračního programu [Integration of recognized refugees and effectiveness of the State Integration Program]. Praha: Etnologický ústav AV ČR.
  133. (1986). International factors in the formation of refugee movements.
  134. (1999). International perspectives on refugee assistance.
  135. (2003). International protection considerations regarding Armenian asylum-seekers and refugees. Retrieved February,
  136. (2002). Interpreters/translators and cross-language research: Reflexivity and border crossings [Electronic Version].
  137. (2000). Introduction: Migration theory: Talking across disciplines. In
  138. (2001). Introduction: Patterns of migration in Central Europe In
  139. (2004). Introduction: Refugees, agency and social transformation. In
  140. (2005). Introduction. In
  141. (1998). Is there "refuge" in the refugee category?
  142. (2007). K některým aspektům nelegální migrace a neoprávněných ekonomických aktivit migrantů [On some aspects of illegal migration and migrants' illegitimate economic activities]. In
  143. (2008). Když se dítě nehodí [When a child does not befit]. In
  144. (2006). Keywords in qualitative methods: A vocabulary of research concepts.
  145. (1991). Labelling refugees: Forming and transforming a bureaucratic identity.
  146. (2005). Landscape of hope and despair: Palestinian refugee camps.
  147. (2007). Lepší život: Migrace v česko-kanadských romských rodinách [Better life: Migration in Czech-Canadian Roma families].
  148. (2004). Life in the twilight zone: Migration, transnationality and gender in the private household.
  149. (2008). Little job growth makes labor migration and remittances the norm in post-Soviet Armenia [Electronic Version]. Migration Information Source from http://www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?id=676.
  150. (1998). Managing difference: Gender and culture in humanitarian emergencies.
  151. (1997). Managing multiple identities: Discourse, legitimacy and resources in the UK refugee system.
  152. (2005). Mapping refugee studies: The quest for agency and reflexivity. Focaal –
  153. (2007). Máte stejná práva, ale…“ ["You have the same rights, but..."] [Electronic Version]. Britské listy,
  154. (2007). Methodological challenges for national and multi-sited comparative survey research.
  155. (2007). Migrace a byrokratické prekážky [Migration and bureaucratic obstacles] [Electronic Version]. Migrace online,
  156. (2001). Migranti z Řecka v Česku [Greek migrants in the Czech Republic]. Praha: Cizinci v České republice [Foreigners in the Czech Republic].
  157. (2007). Migration and remittances: Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Washington DC:
  158. (2001). Migration and the EU’s new eastern border: Between realism and liberalism.
  159. (2002). Migration and the externalities of European integration.
  160. (2007). Migration challenges in the European Union’s eastern neighbourhood. Warsaw: Centre for Eastern Studies.
  161. (2006). Migration policies and institutional setting in the Czech Republic. Paper presented at the Migration Policy-Making in the EU.
  162. (2000). Migration theory: Talking across disciplines.
  163. (2007). Místo pobytu žadatelů o mezinárodní ochranu k 1. 1. 2007 [The place of residence of asylum seekers in January 1,
  164. (2004). Místo pobytu žadatelů o mezinárodní ochranu k 31. 12. 2004 [Residence of asylum seekers in December 31,
  165. (2005). Místo pobytu žadatelů o mezinárodní ochranu k 31. 12. 2005 [The place of residence of asylum seekers in December 31,
  166. (2007). More labels, fewer refugees: Remaking the refugee label in an era of globalization.
  167. (1995). Moving between bogus and bona fide: The policing of inclusion and exclusion in Europe In
  168. (2009). Moving through social networks: The case of the Armenian migrants in the Czech Republic. International Migration (forthcoming).
  169. (2007). Multikulturní skupiny jsou vstřícné, stát je nevstřícný [Multicultural groups are welcoming, the state is not welcoming]. Přes: uprchlický čtvrtletník
  170. (2006). Na cestě za důstojným životem: motivy a strategie migrace Arménů žijících v Brně [On the way to dignified life: Motives and strategies of Armenian migrants living in Brno]. Masaryk University, Faculty of Social Studies,
  171. (1997). National geographic: The rooting of peoples and the territorialization of national identity among scholars and refugees.
  172. (2008). Naučená závislost: specifický problém integrace azylantů [Learned dependency: Specific problem of refugee integration].
  173. (2008). Nelegální pobyt a zaměstnání cizinců z pohledu českého práva [Illegal stay and employment of foreigners from the perspective of Czech law]. In
  174. (2005). Nesmíš plakat [You mustn't cry] [Electronic Version]. Migrace online,
  175. (2006). Nešvary české azylové politiky [Shortcomings of Czech asylum politics] [Electronic Version]. Migrace online from http://aa.ecn.cz/img_upload/9e9f2072be82f3d69e3265f41fe9f28e/PUhl_Nesv ary_ceske_azylove_politiky.pdf.
  176. (2002). New asylum countries? Migration control and refugee protection in an enlarged European Union.
  177. (2002). New challenges for migration policy in Central and Eastern Europe. The Hague:
  178. (2004). New migration movements in Central and Eastern Europe. In
  179. (2004). New opportunities: Angry young men in a Tanzanian refugee camp. In
  180. (2002). Newsline -
  181. (1997). No flights to safety: Carrier sanctions; airline employees and the rights of refugees. London:
  182. (1999). No joking matter: Discursive struggle in the Canadian refugee system.
  183. (1995). Non-places: Introduction to an anthropology of supermodernity.
  184. (2008). Not born a refugee woman: Contesting identities, rethinking practices
  185. (2002). Nové pořádky azylového zákona [New orders of the Asylum Act] [Electronic Version]. Econnect from http://nno.ecn.cz/index.stm?x=94391&apc=nP2x1--.
  186. (2007). Novela zákona o azylu
  187. (2006). Novela zákona o azylu č. 165/2006 Sb. [Amendment to the Asylum Act No.
  188. o azylu a o změně zákona č. 283/1991 Sb., o Policii České republiky, ve znění pozdějších předpisů, (zákon o azylu), ve znění pozdějších předpisů, a některé další zákony. Praha: Parliament of the Czech Republic, Chamber of Deputies.
  189. (2008). O dobru proti nadzlu: Otevřený dopis Václavu Havlovi [Good against superevil: An open letter to Vaclav Havel].
  190. (1983). One way ticket: Migration and female labour.
  191. (2005). Overview of the migration systems in the CIS countries:
  192. (1998). Passing the buck': European Union refugee policies towards Central and Eastern Europe.
  193. Počet cizinců v ČR [Number of foreigners in the Czech Republic].
  194. (1999). Policy challenges of the new diasporas: Migrant networks and their impact on asylum flows and regimes: Transnational Communities Programme.
  195. (1997). Policy: A new field of anthropology. In
  196. (2002). Political analysis.
  197. (1997). Political transformations in postcommunist Armenia: Images and realities In
  198. (2007). Přehled příjemců veřejné finanční podpory z Evropského uprchlického fondu za rok
  199. (2007). Preintegracja i integracja Czeczenów w Polsce – rzeczywistość i rekomendacje [Pre-integration and integration of Chechens
  200. (2007). Producing epistemologies of ignorance in the political asylum application process. Identities:
  201. (2005). Pronásledování související s příslušností k určitému pohlaví. Příručka k posuzování žádostí o azyl [Gender-based persecution: Guidelines for considering asylum claims]. Prague: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
  202. (1995). Purity and exile: Violence, memory, and national cosmology among Hutu refugees in Tanzania. Chicago and London:
  203. (2004). Qualitative research and translation dilemmas.
  204. (2004). Rámce v azylovém diskursu: Od zákonů do praxe a zpět [Frames in the asylum discourse: From laws to practice and back]. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Univerzita Karlova v Praze, Fakulta sociálních věd,
  205. (1997). Re/membering the Portuguese household in Toronto: Culture, contradictions and resistance.
  206. (1993). Reactive migration: Sociological perspectives on refugee movements.
  207. (1997). Reconfiguring the spatiality of power: The construction of a supranational migration framework for the European Union.
  208. (1993). Reconstructing life: Chilean refugee women and the dilemmas of exile.
  209. (2005). Řečtí uprchlíci: kronika řeckého lidu v Čechách, na Moravě a ve Slezsku 1948-1989 [Greek refugees: Chronicle of Greeks
  210. (2008). Refugee advocacy, traumatic representations and political disenchantment.
  211. (2003). Refugee determination: Power and resistance in systems of Foucauldian power.
  212. (2002). Refugee law, gender, and the human rights paradigm.
  213. (1999). Refugee rights and realities: Evolving international concepts and regimes Cambridge:
  214. (2004). Refugee woman’: A dangerous label. Opening a discussion on the role of identity and intersectional oppression in the failure of the international refugee protection regime for refugee women [Electronic Version].
  215. (2000). Refugee women in Europe: Some aspects of the legal and policy dimensions.
  216. (1995). Refugees and exile: From "refugee studies" to the national order of things.
  217. (2001). Refugees and gender. Law and process.
  218. (1995). Refugees and migrants: Hungary at a crossroads. Budapest: Institute for Political Science of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
  219. (1988). Refugees and refugee studies - A label and an agenda: Editorial introduction to the Journal of Refugee Studies.
  220. (2004). Refugees and the transformation of societies: Agency, policies, ethics and politics.
  221. (2006). Refugees in the ‘sick role’: Stereotyping refugees and eroding refugee rights
  222. (1993). Refugees, immigrants, and the state.
  223. (2001). Refugees, race, and gender: The multiple discrimination against refugee women.
  224. (2000). Refugees, resistance, and identity. In
  225. (1996). Refugees: The modern political condition. In
  226. Report on the application of the Dublin II Regulation
  227. (2004). Representing trauma: Political asylum narrative.
  228. (2007). Researching refugees: Preoccupations with power and questions of giving.
  229. (2001). Right spaces: An exploration of feminist approaches to refugee law.
  230. (2005). Rights in exile: Janus-faced humanitarianism.
  231. (1999). Safe third countries: Extending the EU asylum and immigration policies to Central and Eastern Europe. Budapest: Central
  232. (2003). Sampling, snowball: Accessing hidden and hard-toreach populations. In
  233. (1996). Situating feminist dilemmas in fieldwork. In
  234. (1998). Social networks, gender, and immigrant incorporation: Resources and constraints.
  235. (2006). Social processes in asylum facilities: Prospectors and their strategies. In
  236. (2004). Social research methods.
  237. (2003). Sociální práce s uprchlíky [Social work with refugees]. Prague: Organization for Aid to Refugees.
  238. (1996). Some feminist contributions to refugee studies. In
  239. (1994). Space, place and gender Cambridge:
  240. (2005). Společný evropský azylový systém:právní pojem "pronásledování" [Common European Asylum System: Legal notion of "persecution"].
  241. (1990). State theory: Putting the capitalist state in its place.
  242. (2004). Statement of ethical practice for the British Sociological Association.
  243. (1999). States and strangers: Refugees and displacements of statecraft (Borderlines
  244. (2003). States of conflict: Causes and patterns of forced migration to the EU and policy responses. London: Institute for Public Policy Research CCR.
  245. (2002). Statistical yearbook 2001. Geneva: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
  246. Statistical yearbook 2004. Geneva: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
  247. (2008). Štatistika: Prehľad žiadateľov o azyl v Slovenskej republike za obdobie 1992-2007. Retrieved October,
  248. (2008). Statistiky: Žadatelé o mezinárodní ochranu a azylanti [Statistics: International protection applicants and recognized refugees]. Retrieved
  249. (2000). Taking Butler elsewhere: Performativities, spatialities and subjectivities. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space,
  250. (2003). Techniques to identify themes.
  251. (2004). The analysis of semi-structured interviews. In
  252. (1997). The camp as the nomos of the modern.
  253. (2002). The complexity of determining refugeehood: A multidisciplinary analysis of the decision-345 making process of the Canadian Immigration and Refugee Board.
  254. (1984). The constitution of society.
  255. (2005). The Czech Republic: From liberal policy to EU membership.
  256. (1993). the Czech Republic.
  257. (2005). The deportation machine: Europe, asylum and human rights. London: Institute of Race Relations.
  258. (2003). The detention of asylum seekers in the UK: Bail for immigration detainees.
  259. (2003). The dual imperative in refugee research: Some methodological and ethical considerations in social science research on forced migration.
  260. (1996). The Eastern frontier of Western Europe: Mobility in the buffer zone.
  261. (2004). The ethics and politics of asylum: Liberal democracy and the response to refugees. Cambridge:
  262. (2006). The EU's transformative power: Europeanization through conditionality
  263. (2001). The Europeanization of refugee policies: Normative challenges and institutional legacies.
  264. (1999). The experience of refugees as recipients of aid. In
  265. (1981). The family as the locus of gender, class, and political struggle: The example of housework.
  266. (1995). The hidden part of asylum seekers' interviews in Geneva, Switzerland: Some observations about the socio-political construction of interviews between gatekeepers and the powerless.
  267. (2007). The microphysics of participation in refugee research.
  268. (2002). The migration and settlement of refugees in Britain.
  269. (2007). The moral evaluation of asylum seekers of the French reception centers. Paper presented at the "An Unsettled Future? Forced Migration and Refugee Studies in the 21st Century" conference.
  270. (1993). The morning after: Sexual politics at the end of the Cold War. Berkeley and Los Angeles:
  271. (1993). The myth of dependency among camp refugees in Somalia,
  272. (1994). The myth of return: Iraqi Arab and Assyrian refugees in London.
  273. (2001). The new migration space as a buffer zone?
  274. (2006). The perils of Putin's policies [Electronic Version].
  275. (1988). The politics of gender in exile.
  276. (2003). The politics of migration and immigration in Europe. London, Thousand Oaks,
  277. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life.
  278. (1973). The refugee in flight: Kinetic models and forms of displacement.
  279. (1996). The refugee in international law.
  280. (2008). The refugee in international society: Between sovereigns. Cambridge:
  281. (1999). The role of gender, households, and social networks in the migration process: A review and appraisal. In
  282. (2007). The situation for Chechen refugees in Austria. Brussels: European Parliament.
  283. (2005). The situation of Chechen asylum seekers and refugees in Poland and effects of the EU Dublin II Regulation. Essen and Bielefeld: Flüchtlingsrat NRW e.V. and Bielefelder Flüchtlingsrat.
  284. (1990). The social world of refugees: A conceptual framework.
  285. (2008). The state of confusion: Reflections on Central American asylum seekers in the Bay Area Ethnography,
  286. (2007). The trauma of ongoing conflict and displacement in Chechnya: Quantitative assessment of living conditions, and psychosocial and general health status among war displaced in Chechnya and Ingushetia. Amsterdam: Médecins Sans Frontières.
  287. (2005). The truth from the body: Medical certificates as ultimate evidence for asylum seekers.
  288. (1989). The uneasy troika in US refugee policy: Foreign policy, pressure groups, and resettlement costs
  289. (2003). The use and abuse of political asylum in Britain and Germany. London and
  290. (2004). Theoretical coding: Text analysis in grounded theory. In
  291. (1993). Theories of international migration: A review and appraisal. Population and Development Review,
  292. (2004). Third report on the Czech Republic:
  293. (2005). Toward an anthropology of public policy.
  294. (1995). Towards a new international migration regime: Globalization, migration and the internationalization of the state. In
  295. (2003). Towards a sociology of forced migration and social transformation.
  296. (1993). Traditions in documentary analysis.
  297. (2006). Transnational ruptures: Gender and forced migration.
  298. (2007). Twenty-first-century migration as a challenge to sociology.
  299. (2001). Two kinds of quasi-migration in the middle zone: Central Europe as a space for transit migration and mobility for profit In
  300. (2006). Udělejte s námi cokoliv, hlavně už nás nenechávejte v táboře“ O životě příchozích v Pobytových střediscích ["Do whatever you want with us, but don't leave us in the camp" On life of incomers in Residential centres]. Přes: uprchlický čtvrtletník
  301. (1994). Underorganized interorganizational domains: The case of refugee systems.
  302. (2004). Understanding Belarus: Economy and political landscape.
  303. (1991). Unlikely heroes": The evolution of female leadership in a Cambodian ethnic enclave. In
  304. (2005). Uprooted and unwanted: Bosnian refugees in Austria and the United States. College Station: Texas
  305. (2008). Úspěšnost žadatelů o mezinárodní ochranu podle státních občanství; 1993-2007 [Success of international protection seekers according to their nationality; 1993-2007]. Retrieved
  306. (2005). Úvahy nad českým cizineckým právem [Electronic Version]. Migrace online from http://aa.ecn.cz/img_upload/79a33131c9c4293e0fcefb50bfa263ef/PUhl_Uva hy_nad_ceskym_cizineckym_pravem.pdf.
  307. (2006). Uvíznuti v nelegalitě [Mired in illegality].
  308. (1993). Vietnamese refugees in Hon Kong: Behaviour and control.
  309. (2006). Vnitro využívá uprchlíky a neplatí jim [The Ministry of Interior is exploiting refugees and does not pay them]. Hospodářské noviny.
  310. (2007). Výroční zpráva
  311. (2008). Výroční zpráva za rok
  312. (2007). Vždy respektujeme přání a potřeby klientů, říká vedoucí pobytového střediska [We always respect wishes and needs of clients, says the head of a residential centre]. Sociální práce,
  313. (1997). Watch your tongue: Issues in translation and cross-cultural research.
  314. (2006). Welcome to Britain’: The cultural politics of asylum.
  315. (2005). Whose responsibility? Protection of Chechen internally displaced persons, asylum seekers and refugees. Retrieved
  316. (2005). Why an anthropology of public policy?
  317. (2005). Why asylum seekers seek refuge in particular destination countries: An exploration of key determinants
  318. (1999). Women and refugee status: Beyond the public/private dichotomy in UK asylum policy. In
  319. (2008). Women Seeking Asylum: The politics of gender in the asylum determination process in France.
  320. (1994). Women's movement: Women under immigration, nationality and refugee law. London and Stoke-on-Trent:
  321. (1997). Writing development policy and policy analysis plain or clear: On language, genre and power. In
  322. (2006). Z tábora ve Vyšních Lhotách zmizely desítky běženců [Tens of refugees disappeared from the camp in Vyšní Lhoty].
  323. (2007). Žadatelé o azyl a možnosti jejich zaměstnávání [Asylum seekers and the possibilities of their employment].
  324. (2008). Žadatelé o mezinárodní ochranu na trhu práce [Applicants for international protection in the labour market]. Prague: Consortium of Refugee Assisting Organizations in the Czech Republic.
  325. (2003). Žadatelé o přiznání postavení uprchlíka -
  326. (2006). Zkušenosti žadatelů o azyl a strpitelů se zaměstnáváním v ČR [Experiences of asylum seekers and people with toleration status with employment in the Czech Republic]. Brno: Consortium of Refugee Assisting Organizations in the Czech Republic.
  327. (2007). Změny zákona a dobré mravy [Changes of law and good morals].
  328. (2003). Zones of indistinction -security, terror, and bare life. Retrieved May 13, 2004, from http://www.comp.lancs.ac.uk/sociology/papers/Diken-Laustsen-Zones-ofIndistinction.pdf
  329. (2005). Zpráva o situaci v oblasti migrace na území České republiky za rok
  330. Zpráva o situaci v oblasti migrace na území České republiky za rok 2005 [Report on the situation in the area of migration in the Czech Republic in 2005]. Prague: Odbor azylové a migrační politiky [Department of Asylum and Migration Policy].
  331. (2006). Zpráva o situaci v oblasti migrace na území České republiky za rok 2005 [Report on the situation of migration on the territory of the Czech Republic in 2005]. Prague: Ministry of Interior of the Czech Republic.
  332. (2003). Zulfiya - osud Čečenky [Zulfiya - a life story of a Chechen woman] [Electronic Version]. Migrace online, September from http://www.migraceonline.cz/e-knihovna/?x=1957447.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.