Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

The crisis of the Argentinian State: democratisation and economic restructuring, 1976-1989

By Laura Tedesco

Abstract

This thesis examines the crisis of the Argentinian state during the period of the 1983-1989 democratic government. It suggests that the 1976 military dictatorship attempted to resolve the crisis of the Argentinian state by implementing an economic structural reform and State Terrorism. The consequences of the economic structural reform and State Terrorism constrained the margin of manoeuvre of the 1983 democratic government. The main economic constraints were the huge external debt and the impoverishment of the working class. The main political constraint was the need to bring the military to trial while avoiding a direct confrontation with the Armed Forces.\ud The huge external debt constrained not only Argentina's economic growth but also the Radical government's economic strategies. A 'monetarist' restructuring of the state was imposed on debtor countries through IMF 'conditionality' loans. While the Radical government initially opposed such a restructuring, it later gradually began to implement the IMF's requirements.\ud The impoverishment of the working class intensified the government's confrontation with the trades union movement. The Radical government unsuccessfully attempted to control and demobilise the working class. The trades union movement and the workers were able to block state policies, becoming the ultimate barrier to the restructuring policies adopted by the state.\ud The attempt to bring the military to trial exacerbated the relationship between the Radical government and the Armed Forces. The government was unable to implement its own policies towards human rights violations, which prevented a definitive solution to this problem. In addition, the failure to resolve this problem intensified internal unrest within the Armed Forces, fostering the breakdown of the Army's hierarchy.\ud The main political objective of the Radical government was to consolidate democracy. The economic legacy of the military dictatorship obliged the government to deepen the 'monetarist' restructuring of the state and the impoverishment of the workers while consolidating democracy. Implementing 'market-oriented' reforms made the transition to democracy more difficult.\ud The thesis suggests that the Radical government, although unable to resolve the crisis of the Argentinian state, was able to begin the path towards consolidating democracy due to its policies towards human rights violations, which undermined the political role of the Armed Forces

Topics: F1201
OAI identifier: oai:wrap.warwick.ac.uk:2352

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (1990). 59 semanas y media que conmovieron a la Argentina (Buenos Aires:
  2. 66- 19 73 (PhD dissertation, Stanford University). 290 II. Secondary Sources Published Works Abös
  3. (1956). A Preface to Democratic Theory (Chicago: doi
  4. (1991). Accumulation Strategies, State Forms and Hegemonic Projects,
  5. (1992). Alfonsin responde (Buenos Aires: Tiempo de Ideas).
  6. (1991). Alfonsin's Argentina: Renewal of Parties and Congress (1983-1989) CEDES Documentos de Trabajo (Buenos Aires:
  7. (1990). Argentina 1946-1983: the Economic Ministers Speak doi
  8. (1975). Argentina and Perön, doi
  9. (1989). Argentina: Reforms for Price Stability and Growth
  10. (1983). Argentina: the departure of the military - end of a political cycle or just another episode? doi
  11. (1992). Argentina. Evoluciön macroeconömica, financiaciön externa y cambio politico en la decada de los 80
  12. (1987). Argentina's bargaining with the IMF, doi
  13. (1989). Argentina's economy under a Labour-based Government, 1973-76,
  14. (1989). Argentina's medium term: problems and prospects,
  15. (1986). Argentina's National Commission on Disappeared People doi
  16. (1990). Asalto a la ilusiön (Buenos Aires: Planeta) Mosley,
  17. (1989). Authoritarianism and the Crisis of the Argentine Political Economy (Stanford: doi
  18. (1983). Autoritarismo y democracia (1955-1983) (Buenos Aires: Centro Editor de America
  19. (1991). Between Confrontation and Accommodation: Military and Government Policy in Democratic Argentina, doi
  20. (1972). Big Business and Dependencia: a Latin American view, doi
  21. (1992). Bob Jessop's Contribution to the Regulation Approach,
  22. (1985). Bringing the Sate Back In (Cambridge:
  23. (1988). Bureaucratic Authoritarianism. Argentina, 1966-1973, in Comparative Perspective (California: doi
  24. (1990). Business and the 'boys': The politics of neoliberalism in the Central Andes,
  25. (1983). Cambios en el liderazgo industrial argentino en el periodo de Martinez de Hoz, Desarrollo Econömico, n° 91 (Buenos Aires: doi
  26. (1987). Capital Flight and Third World Debt (Washington: doi
  27. (1991). Capital is Class Struggle (and bears are not cuddly),
  28. (1977). Capital, Crisis and the State; doi
  29. (1987). Capitales extranjeros y grupos dominantes argentinos (Buenos Aires: Centro Editor de America
  30. (1990). Cara y contracara de los grupos econömicos (Buenos Aires:
  31. Centro de Economia Internacional (CEI), Buenos Aires,
  32. (1988). CGT, el otro poder (Buenos Aires:
  33. (1992). Changing Fortunes doi
  34. (1987). Civiles y Militares (Buenos Aires: Legasa).
  35. (1991). Class beyond the Nation-State, doi
  36. (1989). Close the IMF, abolish debt and end development: a class analysis of the international debt crisis, Capital and Class, doi
  37. (1990). Comisiön Econömica para America Latina y el Caribe doi
  38. (1991). Comisiön Econömica para America Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL) doi
  39. (1987). Crisis militar y transiciön democrätica en la Argentina, Cuadernos de Marcha, n° 19,
  40. (1980). Crisis of the State and Military-Authoritarian Rule in Argentina.
  41. (1978). Crisis, Breakdown and Reequilibration (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins doi
  42. (1986). De la crisis de Malvinas a la subordinaciön condicionada: conflictos intramilitares y transiciön poiitica en Argentina, The Helen Kellogg
  43. (1986). De la deuda externa al Plan Austral, in EURAL doi
  44. (1989). De la irrelevancia estrategica de Reagan y Alfonsin: hacia el desarrollo de un 'realismo periferico',
  45. (1989). Debt and Democracy in Latin America, 1920s-1980s
  46. (1993). Debt Crisis, Adjustment Policies and Capital Formation in Developing Countries: Where Do We Stand?, doi
  47. (1979). Decisiones de precios en alta inflaciön, doi
  48. (1992). Decisiones poiiticas en tiempos de crisis in Frenkel, R. et al (1992) Argentina. Evoluciön macroeconömica, financiaciön externs y cambio politico en la decada de los 80
  49. (1978). Defending the National Interest (New Jersey: doi
  50. (1994). Delegative Democracy, doi
  51. (1984). Democracy and Debt in South America: A Continent's Dilemma in Foreign Affairs, doi
  52. (1993). Democracy and the "Washington Consensus", World Development, doi
  53. (1991). Democracy and the Market. Political and economic reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America (Cambridge: doi
  54. (1989). Democracy in Developing Countries. doi
  55. (1985). Democratisation: a review of the Issues, doi
  56. (1989). Democratizing Brazil: doi
  57. (1978). Dependence and Dependency in the Global System, doi
  58. (1979). Dependency and Development in Latin America (Berkeley: doi
  59. (1978). Dependency: a Formal Theory of Underdevelopment or a methodology for the Analysis of Concrete Situations of Underdevelopment?, World Development, doi
  60. (1978). Dependent Accumulation and Underdevelopment
  61. (1989). Desarrollo industrial e inestabilidad macroeconömica. La experiencia argentina reciente,
  62. (1988). Deuda externa e inestabilidad macroeconömica en la Argentina (Buenos Aires:
  63. (1990). Deuda externa y negociaciones financieras en la decada de los ochenta: una evaluaciön de la experiencia argentina, doi
  64. (1987). Deuda Externa y Poder Econömico en la Argentina (Buenos Aires: doi
  65. (1969). Devaluaciön de la tasa de cambio en un pals semiindustrializado. La experiencia de la Argentina 19 55- 19 61 (Buenos Aires: I nstituto Di Tella). doi
  66. (1990). Dilemmas of Democratization in doi
  67. (1993). Dossier Secreto (Buenos Aires:
  68. (1987). Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLA) doi
  69. (1990). Economic Crisis and Policy Choice: the Politics of Adjustment in the Third World (Princeton: doi
  70. (1979). Economic Crisis and the State in the Third World, Development Discussion Paper,
  71. (1989). Economic Policy during Illia's Period in Office, 1963-6,
  72. (1989). Economic Policy without Political Context: Guido, 1962-3,
  73. (1988). Economic Stabilization in Argentina: the Austral Plan, doi
  74. (1985). Economic Survey of Latin American and the Caribbean (Santiago de Chile: United Nations).
  75. Economics Minister 1985-1989, Buenos Aires,
  76. (1980). EI desarrollo reciente del mercado de capitales en la Argentina, Desarrollo Econömico, doi
  77. (1988). EI proceso de endeudamiento externo argentino, Documento CEDES/2 (Buenos Aires:
  78. (1982). El 45 (Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana).
  79. (1992). El Club de los Poderosos (Buenos Aires:
  80. (1971). El Cordobazo (Buenos Aires: La Historia Popular).
  81. (1971). El Ejercito y la Politica en la Argentina (Buenos Aires: doi
  82. (1986). El estado frente al endeudamiento privado externo,
  83. (1989). El movimiento obrero argentino (Buenos Aires: Legasa).
  84. (1988). El movimiento sindical argentino (Buenos Aires:
  85. (1986). El nuevo poder econömico (Buenos Aires: doi
  86. (1993). El Nuevo Poder Terrateniente (Buenos Aires: Planeta Espejo de la Argentina).
  87. (1987). El Perd Heterodoxo: un Modelo Econömico (Lima: Instituto Nacional de Planificaciön).
  88. (1981). El Peronismo (Buenos Aires: doi
  89. (1982). El Poder militar en la Argentina (1976-1981) (Frankfurt: Verlag Kalus Dieter Verveuert).
  90. (1989). El proceso de industrializaciön en la Argentina. Evoluciön, retroceso y prospectiva (Buenos Aires:
  91. (1959). El Radicalismo (Buenos Aires:
  92. (1987). El ultimo levantamiento (Buenos Aires: Legasa).
  93. (1991). En la rodada, paper presented at Efectos de la crisis en la sociedad argentina. Los nuevos pobres, UNICEF, Buenos Aires.
  94. (1970). Ensayos sobre historia economica argentina (Buenos Aires: doi
  95. (1990). eQuien es Quien? Los duenos del poder econömico (Argentina 1973-1987) (Buenos Aires: Editora/12 and Pensamiento Juridico Editora).
  96. (1972). Essays on Marx's Theory of Value (Detroit: Black and Red).
  97. (1992). Estados Americanos doi
  98. (1985). External Debt in Latin America (Boulder: Lynne Rienner). doi
  99. Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales (FLACSO/Programa Buenos Aires), Buenos Aires, doi
  100. (1987). Falklands: the secret plot (London: doi
  101. (1982). Field Research: a Sourcebook and a Field Manual (London: Unwin Hyman). doi
  102. FLACSO/Programa Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, doi
  103. (1989). Fragile Coalitions: the Politics of Economic Adjustment (New Brunswick: Transaction Books). 304 doi
  104. (1982). From Dictatorship to Democracy: Coping with the Legacies of Authoritarianism and Totalitarianism (Westport, Connecticut and London: doi
  105. (1990). From Policy Consensus to Renewed Economic Growth
  106. (1991). From Sharp Disinflation to Hyperinflation, Twice: the Argentine Experience, 1985-1989, in
  107. Fundaciön Simön Rodriguez, Buenos Aires, doi
  108. (1985). Generals in Retreat (Manchester: doi
  109. (1994). Global Capital and the National State, doi
  110. (1994). Globalisation and the State, Socialist Registrar
  111. (1983). Go/pes militares y salidas electorales (Buenos Aires:
  112. (1986). Governing the Economy (Oxford: doi
  113. (1986). Hacia una renovaciön del crecimiento econömico en America Latina (Mexico: El Colegio de Mexico).
  114. (1957). Historia Critica de los Partidos Politicos (Buenos Aires: Editorial Argumentos).
  115. (1978). Historians and the Living Past (London: Haarfan Davidson).
  116. (1992). How Should One Study Economic Policy-Making?, World Politics, doi
  117. (1992). Indicadores, April-June (Buenos Aires: Sociedad Rural Argentina). 287 Uniön Civica Radical
  118. (1990). Industria y Comercio Exterior doi
  119. (1988). Inflation Stabilization or Hyperinflation Avoidance? The Case of the Austral Plan in Argentina:
  120. Instituto Torcuato Di Tella, Buenos Aires, doi
  121. (1990). Intereses empresarios, dictadura y democracia en la Argentina actual, CEDES Documentos de Trabajo (Buenos Aires:
  122. (1988). International Financial Statistics Yearbook, doi
  123. (1992). Issues in Democratic Consolidation (Notre Dame: doi
  124. (1988). Keynesianism, Monetarism and the Crisis of the State (Hants: Edward Elgar). doi
  125. (1988). La coordinaciön de los deudores latinoamericanos: ei Consenso de Cartagena y el Grupo de los Ocho, Estudios Internacionales, ano XXI, doi
  126. (1989). La cuestiön militar (Buenos Aires: Centro de Estudios para la Nueva Mayoria).
  127. (1991). La cuestiön sindical (Buenos Aires: Centro de Estudios para la Nueva Mayoria).
  128. (1987). La dificil apuesta del peronismo democrätico, in
  129. (1984). La dinämica del mercado laboral urbano en la Argentina, 1976-1981, Desarrollo Econömico, n° 93 (Buenos Aires: doi
  130. (1990). La educaciön presidencial (Buenos Aires:
  131. (1985). La experiencia argentina de renegociaciön de su deuda externa: limitaciones y perspectivas, mimeograph (Buenos Aires:
  132. (1988). La formaciön del sindicalismo peronista (Buenos Aires:
  133. (1989). La industria argentina: desarrollo y cambios estructurales (Buenos Aires:
  134. (1983). La nueva distribuciön funcional del ingreso en la Argentina, Desarrollo Econömico, doi
  135. (1985). La nueva polütica econörnica, Foro Econömico, no 5.
  136. (1988). La perversa deuda (Buenos Aires: Legasa).
  137. (1992). La pobreza de las naciones. La economia politica del neoliberalismo en la Argentina,
  138. (1987). La poiitica militar del gobierno constitucional argentino,
  139. (1985). La politica antinflacionaria, in
  140. (1986). La Politica Econömica de Martinez de Hoz (Buenos Aires:
  141. (1975). La politica econömica en una sociedad conflictiva (Buenos Aires: doi
  142. (1989). La politica militar en un contexto de transiciön:
  143. (1961). La Politica y los Partidos (Buenos Aires: Fondo de Cultura Econömica). doi
  144. (1991). La reestructuraciön industrial argentina en el contexto macroeconömico e internacional (Buenos Aires: Centro de Investigaciones para la Transformaciön).
  145. (1985). La reforma militar (Buenos Aires: Legasa).
  146. (1986). La renovaciön fundacional (Buenos Aires: doi
  147. (1978). La tercera presidencia de Perön: gobierno de emergencia ycrisis politica, CEDES Documento de trabajo n° 10 (Buenos Aires: doi
  148. (1990). La vieja guardia sindical (Buenos Aires: doi
  149. (1993). Las capacidades y la autonomia del estado en Brasil y la Argentina. Un enfoque institucionalista, Desarrollo Econömico, doi
  150. (1987). Las relaciones Argentina-Estados Unidos: del alineamiento heterodoxo a la 'recomposiciön madura',
  151. (1988). Latin America's Transnational Capitalists and the Debt: A Class-Analysis Perspective, doi
  152. (1990). Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? doi
  153. (1991). Liberalizing Foreign Trade,
  154. (1979). Lineages of the Absolutist State doi
  155. (1988). Los cambios tecnolögicos, in Barsky et al
  156. (1990). Los Capitanes de la Industria. Grandes empresarios, politica y economia en la Argentina de los anos 80 (Buenos Aires: Legasa).
  157. (1992). Los Duenos de la Argentina (Buenos Aires:
  158. (1985). Los hilos sociales del Poder,
  159. (1989). Los sindicatos en ei gobierno 1973-1976 (Buenos Aires: Centro Editor de America Latina). Torre,
  160. (1991). Marxism, Sociology and Poulantzas's Theory of the State,
  161. (1991). Marxist theories of the state in world system analysis,
  162. (1986). Mas a11ä de la crisis de la deuda (Buenos Aires: GEL). 297
  163. (1989). Military Rule in Latin America doi
  164. (1987). Models of Democracy (Cambridge:
  165. (1981). Monetarism and Economic Development. The experience of Argentina,
  166. (1983). Movimiento Obrero Argentino, 1930-1954 (Buenos Aires: Siglo XX).
  167. MP the Radical Party 1985-up to now, Buenos Aires,
  168. (1989). New approaches to the Latin American debt crisis,
  169. (1991). Ni olvido ni perdön? Derechos Humanos y tensiones civico-militares en la transiciön, CEDES Documentos de Trabajo (Buenos Aires:
  170. (1978). On the Analysis of the Bourgeois Nation State within the World Market Context. An Attempt to Develop a Methodological and Theoretical Approach,
  171. (1979). On the Characterization of Authoritarian Regimes in Latin America,
  172. (1985). On the Road toward a More Adequate Understanding of the Sate, in doi
  173. (1983). Ongania, Levingston, Lanusse: los militares en la politica argentina (Buenos Aires: Editorial Belgrano). doi
  174. (1994). Open Marxism and vulgar International Political Economy, Review doi
  175. (1990). Orthodoxy and Its Alternatives: Explaining Approaches to Stabilization and Adjustment,
  176. (1990). Panel discussion on Latin American adjustment in
  177. (1964). Partidos y Poder en !a Argentina Moderna (Buenos Aires: Editorial Jorge Alvarez).
  178. (1992). Patterns of elite negotiation and confrontation in Argentina doi
  179. (1989). Peronist Economic Policies, 1946-1955,
  180. (1978). Pluralism Revisited, Comparative Politics, doi
  181. (1983). Poder militar y sociedad politica en la Argentina (Buenos Aires:
  182. (1988). Poder militar, origen, apogeo y transiciön (Buenos Aires: Legasa).
  183. (1987). Political decision-making by a military corporation,
  184. (1980). Political Response to Capitalist Crisis: Neo-Marxist Theories of the State and the Case of the New Deal, doi
  185. (1989). Political Theory and the Modern State (Oxford: doi
  186. (1958). Political Theory: truth and consequences, doi
  187. (1991). Politics and Identity in the Argentine Army,
  188. (1975). Politics in Argentina 1890-1930: the Rise and Fall of Radicalism (Cambridge: doi
  189. (1990). Por que cayö Alfonsin (Buenos Aires:
  190. (1991). Post-Fordism and Social Form (London: doi
  191. (1991). Post-war Global Accumulation and the Trans nationalisation of Capital, doi
  192. (1970). Power and Poverty doi
  193. (1973). Power in Britain (London : doi
  194. (1973). Power in Britain (London: doi
  195. (1990). Prensa y Anälisis Politico (Buenos Aires: Centro de Estudios para la Nueva Mayoria).
  196. President Banco de! Buen Ayre, Buenos Aires,
  197. President of Argentina's Central Bank, 1986-1989, Buenos Aires,
  198. (1990). Programas de ajuste y estrategias politicas: las experiencias recientes de la Argentina y Bolivia, Desarrollo Econömico, n° 119 (Buenos Aires: doi
  199. (1991). Programas de ajuste y estrategias politicas: las experiencias recientes de la Argentina y Bolivia: un comentario, doi
  200. (1984). Recuerdo de la muerte (Mexico:
  201. (1985). Reflections on the political economy of authoritarian rule and capitalist reorganization in contemporary Argentina,
  202. (1988). Resistance and Integration. Peronism and the Argentine Working Class, 1946-1976 (Cambridge: doi
  203. (1989). Restricciones al crecimiento y distribuciön del ingreso: el caso argentino, Documentos CEDES/27 (Buenos Aires:
  204. (1988). Rethinking Military Politics (Princeton: doi
  205. (1981). Retorno y Derrumbe. EI ultimo gobierno peronista (Buenos Aires:
  206. (1989). Review Article: Bringing the State Back In?, doi
  207. Secretary of Economic Coordination 1985-1989, Buenos Aires,
  208. (1990). Signals of War: the Falklands conflict of doi
  209. (1990). Sindicalismo Peronista / Gobierno Radical. Los anos de Alfonsin (Buenos Aires: Fundaciön Friedrich Ebert and Folios Ediciones).
  210. (1984). Sindicatos y Politica en Argentina (Buenos Aires: Estudios CEDES).
  211. (1990). Social Conflict and Populist Policies in Latin American, Occasional papers, doi
  212. (1982). Soldiers of Perön, Argentina's Montoneros doi
  213. (1992). Sources Official Documents Banco Central de la Republica Argentina
  214. (1990). Stabilization under Alfonsin's government: a frustrated attempt, Documento CEDES/42 (Buenos Aires:
  215. (1978). State an Alliances in Argentina, 1956-1976, doi
  216. (1980). State as Class Practice,
  217. (1990). State Power and Labor Politics in the Context of Military Rule: organized labor, Peronism and the Armed Forces in Argentina,
  218. (1990). State Theory (Cambridge: doi
  219. (1990). Statism, New Institutionalism, and Marxism, The Socialist Register
  220. (1988). Stopping Hyperinflation: The Case of the Austral Plan in Argentina:
  221. (1981). Teoria y prdctica del liberalism. Politica antiinilacionaria y apertura econbmica en la Argentina, 1976-1981, Desarrollo Econömico, n2 82 (Buenos Aires: doi
  222. (1969). The Army and Politics in Argentina, doi
  223. (1978). The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes: doi
  224. (1973). The Capitalist State: Reply to Nicol Poulantzas,
  225. (1992). The Crisis of Argentine Capitalism (Chapel Hill: doi
  226. (1978). The Current Inflation: Towards a Sociological Account,
  227. (1990). The Debt Squads (London: doi
  228. (1987). The Falklands/Malvinas war (London: doi
  229. (1985). The Fiftul Republic (Colorado:
  230. (1991). The Internationalisation of Capital and the International State System, doi
  231. (1991). The Internationalisation of the State, doi
  232. (1989). The Latin American Debt Problem: Anatomy and Solutions
  233. (1990). The Marxist Theory of Overaccumulation and Crisis,
  234. (1990). The military and democracy (Massachusetts: Lexington Books).
  235. (1984). The national economy: a Keynesian myth?, doi
  236. (1986). The nature of the Alfonsin Coalition,
  237. (1979). The New Authoritarianism in Latin America (Princeton: doi
  238. (1983). The Peruvian Experiment Revisited (Princeton: doi
  239. (1991). The political impact of economic crisis doi
  240. (1994). The politics of capital flight: exit and exchange rates in Latin America, doi
  241. (1993). The Politics of Economic Crisis in Latin America, doi
  242. (1991). The Politics of Economic Reforms: The Southern European Experience, Occasional Papers, Working Paper,
  243. (1986). The Politics of Economic Stabilization, doi
  244. (1993). The Politics of Economic Transformation, doi
  245. (1989). The Politics of Stabilization and Structural Adjustment, in
  246. (1973). The Problem of the Capitalist State;
  247. (1977). The Ruling Class Does Not Rule: Notes on the Marxist Theory of the State;, Socialist Revolution
  248. (1991). The State and Everyday Struggle,
  249. (1984). The State and Political Theory (Princeton: doi
  250. (1978). The State and Society: Peru in Comparative Politics (Princeton: doi
  251. (1991). The State Debate (London:
  252. (1986). The State in doi
  253. (1969). The State in Capitalist Society (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson).
  254. (1991). The State Rules, OK? The Continuing Political Economy of the Nation-States, doi
  255. (1976). The State, Capital, and Economic Policy (London: doi
  256. (1993). The Third Wave. Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century (Norman: doi
  257. (1986). The Tragedy of Lost Opportunity in Peru,
  258. (1962). The Two Faces of Power, doi
  259. (1987). Theories of the State doi
  260. (1992). Towards a Marxist Theory of the International State System,
  261. (1986). Transitions from Authoritarian Rule. Comparative Perspectives (Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins doi
  262. (1985). Transnacionalizaciön y politica econömica en la Argentina (Buenos Aires:
  263. (1989). Unbalanced Development, 1958-62,
  264. (1992). Union Political Tactics and Democratic Consolidation in Alfonsin's Argentina,
  265. (1991). View from Below: Working-Class Consciousness in Argentina,
  266. (1977). Wallerstein's World Capitalist System: a Theoretical and Historical Critique, doi
  267. (1993). What do we know about the political economy of economic policy reform? The World Bank Research Observer, doi
  268. (1990). What should be done about the guilty?,
  269. (1990). What Washington Means by Policy Reform,
  270. (1991). When Failure Becomes Success: Class and the Debate over Stabilization and Adjustment, World Development, doi
  271. (1961). Who Governs? (New Haven: doi
  272. (1991). Why Economists Disagree
  273. (1988). World Bank Tables doi
  274. (1992). World Debt Tables 1992-1993 (Washington DC: World Bank). Newspapers Ambito Financiero Clarin Financial Times La Naciön La Voz Latin America Political Report Latin America Regional Reports Southern Cone Latin America Weekly Report
  275. (1986). Writing for Social Scientists (Chicago:

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.