Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Your window-on-the-world: interactive television, the BBC and the second shift aesthetics of public service broadcasting

By James Bennett


The impetus for this project was to consider how the digitalisation of television stood as an important moment to re-evaluate key concepts and debates within television studies. To this end, my focus is on public service broadcasting and television studies' textual tradition. I examine how linear models of the television text are challenged, usurped and at times reinforced by interactive television's emergent non-linear, personalisable forms. In so doing, I am concerned to analyse interactive television's textual structures in relation to the BBC's position as a public service broadcaster in the digital television age. Across these two concerns I aim to historicise the moment of digitalisation, drawing on longer positionings of television's technological and cultural form as a 'window-on-the-world'. An introduction is followed by section 1 of the thesis that includes a review of key literature in the field, focusing particularly on work on the 'text' of television studies. The chapters in section 1 mix this review with an historical argument that understand the current digital television era as one of 'excess', placing television at the boundaries of new and old media concerns that can be usefully understood through the presence of a dialectic between television's position as window-on-the-world and its emergent position as 'portal'. Section 1 demonstrates how this dialectic is called up by the prominence of discourses of 'choice' in new media practices and textualities and, more importantly, the debates about public service broadcasting's role in the digital age. As I go on to show in section 2, this dialectic evidences a tension between the 'imaginative journeys' television's window offers and the way in which these are then 'rationalised'. The second half of the thesis maps out emergent textual forms of interactive television by analysing the way choice and mobility are structured, providing a series of case studies in non-fiction television genres. Chapter 4 demonstrates the persistence of key discourses subsumed within the window-on-the-world metaphor in the formation and 'everydaying' of interactive television, elucidating key institutional and gendered tensions in the way these discourses are mobilised in the digital age. In turn, Chapter 5 connects the kinds of mobility promised by interactive television's window to longer historical practices of public institutions regulating spectator movement. Chapter 6 examines how television's window has been explicitly remediated by interactive television, placing it within the 'database' ontologies of computing. Finally Chapter 7 demonstrates the way in which television's window increasingly comes to function as a portal through which to access digital media spaces, such as the Internet. Across the chapters I am concerned to connect the textual and discursive form of each case study to the academic debates and public service concerns of the various applications' generic identity. Although I am interested in the challenges television's digitalisation poses to both public service broadcasting and traditional television studies approaches to the text, a more important motivation has been to re-affirm the role of both in the digital television landscape. Thus through close textual analysis that connects aesthetics with production and regulation, the thesis aims to demonstrate the relevance of television studies and the BBC, as a public service broadcaster, as an 'old media' becomes a 'new' one

Topics: PN1990
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (2004b) 'Is Television a Distinct Medium? TV and Convergence',
  2. (2006). (Re)Visiting 7-be Grove Family - "Neighbours to the Nation" (1954-57): Television History and Approaches to Genre',
  3. (1993). 11--indou, Shopping: Onema and the Postmodernism.
  4. (2004). 116 Appendix of images for Chapter 2 .:, ýr-:..., ý ý,,. ýý. ý ,.
  5. 123 the interests of the consumer (Chris Smith, Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport, Royal Television Society Lecture,
  6. (1997). 21 It is worth making a brief point about the use of the terms portal and window-on-the-world here in relation to television's digitalisation and the use of metaphor in television studies. As theorists such as Jostein Grisprud
  7. (2006). 257 the others". This is a problematic I explore elsewhere and, as my discussion of fragment in relation to the BBC's coverage of the Olympics suggests, is not one that is inexorably repeated by BBC programming strategies
  8. (2004). 287 Figure 6.4 The onscreen EPG for the BBC's Athens Olympics application allowed viewsers to plan ahead. Chapter 7: Interfacing the UK -
  9. (2004). 291 value' or 'informed democracy' (supporting documentation to Pbase I Review of Public Service Television Broadcasting,
  10. (2002). 32). By allowing the BBC to screen multiple events and create an always available highlights stream, the Olympics application maximised the number of people likely to watch live, but also provided the capacity for viewsers to catch up on the day's action.
  11. (1996). 52 See for example, len Ang's study of television's place in domestic routines or, more recently, Helen Wood's work on the way audiences select and use television programming on hard drive recorders to fit their domestic milieu (An-g.
  12. 62 For example, in 2003 Simon Schama signed a record f 3million with the BBC to present two new landmark- series on history and art.
  13. (1985). 7-be Classical Hollywood Cineina. - Filin Sýyle 6ý Mode of Production to 1960. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  14. (1975). 7-be Fantastic. - A Structural Approacb to a Literary Genre. (R. Howard Trans.
  15. (1999). 7-be Future Funding of the BBC. Report of the Independent Review Panel, Chaired by Gavyn Davies.
  16. (1984). 7-be Practice of Everyday Life.
  17. (1992). 7-be Real World (Kenney, Bunim-Murray Productions for MTV,
  18. (1989). 7-be Simpsons (Brooks/Groening, Twentieth Century Fox,
  19. (2006). 7-be Virtual Window. - From Alberti to Microsoft.
  20. (2005). 7-bunder Road and the BBC's multiplatform projects', paper presented at MeCCSA Postgraduate Network conference,
  21. (1996). 7be Art of Record. - A Critical Enquiry into Documentary. Manchester:
  22. (2001). A Cultural Approach to Television Genre Theory',
  23. (2002). A Machine-Like New Medium: A Theoretical Examination of Interactive TV',
  24. (2005). A New Public Service Communication Environment? Public Service Broadcasting Values in the Reconfiguring Media Environment',
  25. (1988). A Poetics of Postmodernism. London
  26. (1991). Adorno's Reproach: Repetition, Difference and Television Genre',
  27. (2000). Aesthetics, Policy and the Politics of Popular Culture',
  28. (2001). After 7-1'. Essq -vs on a . 1fechitm in Transition. Durham & London:
  29. (2005). After Auscbwitz (Rees,
  30. (1994). American Technological Sublime.
  31. (1997). An Introduction to Television Documentan-.. Confi-onting Realitv.
  32. (1998). Animated Geography: Early Cinema at the American Museum of Natural History',
  33. (2001). As Manovich argues, `the computerization of culture not only leads to the emergence of new cultural forms such as computer games and virtual worlds; it redefines existing ones'
  34. (1983). As with Newcomb and Hirsch's conception of viewing strip
  35. (2004). At Home with Television',
  36. (1982). Audience Control',
  37. Auscbwitz (Rees/Tatge [director/writer, 6 episodes each], BBC2,2005) Big Brotber (Endemol for Channel 4,2000 -
  38. (1990). Banality in Cultural Studies',
  39. (2004). BBC News24 Catches up on Sky', Tbe Guardian, 5/02/04, available at: httL2: //media. guardian. co. uk/tvnewsbattleofthebulletins/stoLY/0,7521.114120 3.00. html site visited 21/04/04.
  40. (2006). BBC,
  41. (2003). BBC's Limits Still Set by Sky News',
  42. (2004). BBC's New Chief Says: Why Can't We Be Friends?
  43. (2004). BBC/Discovery/Prosieben/France2/Dangerous Films/Tel France,
  44. (1998). Becoming Vhlual. - Realit in the Digital Age. y (R. Bononno Trans.
  45. (2005). Body-Politic (National Imaginary): "Lest We Forget Mateship (Empire) Right or Wrong',
  46. (1987). Bond and Beyond.. Tbe Political Career of a Popular Hero.
  47. (2004). Bringing the Past to the Small Screen',
  48. (2001). Britisb Ybutb Television: Cynicism and Encbantment.
  49. (2001). British Television Policy A Reader.
  50. (1990). Broadcasting Act.
  51. (1986). Broadcasting and the State: Britain and the Experience of Channel
  52. (1986). Broadcasting in the 90s: Competition, Cboice and
  53. (1997). Broadcasting is Dead. Long Live Digital Choice: Perspectives From the United Kingdom and Germany',
  54. (1985). Broadcasting Politics: Communications and Consumption',
  55. (1997). Buffy the Vampire Slayer (Whedon [writer/creator],
  56. (2004). Building a Digital Cultural Commons - The Example of the BBC',
  57. (2004). Building Public Value.
  58. (2000). Builtfor the Kill (Buchanen/Watts/Fairclough [15 episodes each],
  59. (2004). But This Time You Choose! ": Approaching The 'Interactive' Audience in Reality TV,
  60. (2002). Cable, Satellite and Digital Technologies',
  61. (2004). Calling the Shots From the Sofa',
  62. (1998). Chris Smith's announcement of the digital future largely echoes that voiced by Mark Booth in
  63. (1994). Cinema and the Postmodern Condition',
  64. (1998). Cinema Futures: Convergence, Divergence, Difference',
  65. (1992). CNN, the Gulf War, and journalistic Practice',
  66. (2001). Collective Intelligence',
  67. (2003). Communications Act.
  68. (2004). Competition Problems in the Transition of Digital UK Marketplace',
  69. (2001). Constructing News Values (including greybox on 'Gatekeeper Studies')',
  70. (2006). Convergence Culture: Wbere Old and New Media Collide. London &
  71. (2004). Convergence Television: Aggregating Form and Repurposing Content in the Culture of Conglomeration',
  72. (1998). Courtship Ends as Soccer and TV are United',
  73. (2006). Creative Futures.
  74. (1999). Critical Ideas in Television Studies.
  75. (2006). Critical Industrial Practice: Repurposing, and the Migratory Patterns of Industrial Texts',
  76. (2001). Culture, Citizenship and Consumerism: The BBC's Fair Trading Obligations and Public Service Broadcasting',
  77. (2005). Culture, Communications and Political Economy',
  78. (1972). Da Capo Press. (Original work published
  79. (1998). De/Re-regulating the System: The British Experience',
  80. (1986). Defining the Postmodern',
  81. (2006). Delivering Public Value: The BBC and Public Sector Reform', Smith Institutelledia Lecture,
  82. (1998). demonstrates that the advancement of television as a broadcast technology was concurrent with the suppression of this interactive possibility, chiefly due to a failure to find a military rationale for its development
  83. (2002). Die Hard / Try Harder: Narrative, Spectacle and Beyond, from Hollywood to Videogame',
  84. (1998). Digital Aestbetics.
  85. (2000). Digital Futures: European Television in the Age of Convergence',
  86. (2001). Digital McLuban: A Guide to the Information Millennium.
  87. (2006). Digital PSB - Public Service Broadcasting Post Digital Switcbover.
  88. (2006). Digital Television Update -
  89. (1998). Digital Television: Between the Economy and Pluralism',
  90. (2003). Digitextuality and Click Theory: Theses on Convergence Media in the Digital Age',
  91. (2003). DTT - The People's Choice', speech to FTNew Media Broadcasting Conference,
  92. (2003). each application resembles the webportals of Buzzard's
  93. (2007). Editorial - TVIII: Into or Towards a New Television Age? ',
  94. (1980). Encoding/Decoding',
  95. (2003). Engaging Enhancement - Applications such as those designed for the BBC's coverage of the Last Night of the Proms (BBCi,
  96. (1997). examine the rationalities of interactive television's portal in more optimistic terms. Thus as John Street has argued, the moment of a new technology is often falsely polarised as a dichotomy `between choice and determinism, between activism and passivism'
  97. (2005). Exemplarity, Pedagogy and Television History',
  98. (1992). Extending Cboice in the Digital Age: 7-be BBCs Role in the New Broadcasting Age.
  99. (2002). Extending Choice, Securing Quality, Review Chaired by Sir Robin Biggam.
  100. (2006). Fact Book
  101. (2001). Factual Entertainment on British Television: The Midlands TV Research Group's "8-9 Project",
  102. (1992). Field in Vision: Television Sport and Cultural Transformation.
  103. (1990). Fifties Television: 7-be Industry and its Critics.
  104. (1993). Film as Film: Understanding andjudging Movies.
  105. (2004). Flexible N11crocasting: Gender, Generation, and Television-Internet Convergence',
  106. (2005). Four approaches to the sociology of news',
  107. (2001). Franklin's history attests, the purpose of public service broadcasting has always been in question since the Reithian tripartite edict of `inform, educate and entertain' was established (Franklin,
  108. (1986). From Post-Structuralism to Postmodernity: Habermas's Counter-Perspective',
  109. (2007). From the Box in the Corner to the Box on the Shelf , xell,
  110. (1979). Generation of Vipers.
  111. (1995). Genre and Hollywood. London: Routledge Negroponte,
  112. (1992). Genre Study and Television',
  113. (2005). Green Paper - Review of the BBCs Royal Cbarter. - A Strong BBC, Independent of Government.
  114. Guidelines.
  115. (1997). Hamlet on the Holodeck: 7-be Future of Narrative in Cyberspace Cambridge,
  116. (1991). Heard Over the Phone: 7-be Lonely Villa and the de Lorde Tradition of the Terrors of Technolouv',
  117. (2001). Helen Wheatley has discussed the alignment of expenditure with quality and middle-class taste codes usefully in relation to the BBC's coproduction of The Blue Planet with Discovery
  118. (2004). Help or Hindrance? The History of the Book and Electronic Media',
  119. (2004). Historicising Media in Transition',
  120. (1998). Histories of British Television',
  121. Homes: Then and Now',
  122. (1954). Horizon (BBC,
  123. (2004). How Users Define New Media: A History of the Amusement Phonograph',
  124. (2001). Hypertext and Critical Theory',
  125. (2007). Imaginary Spaces: User Participation in Networked Narratives',
  126. (2006). In contrast to the highly constrained mobility of Sky's everyday-ing of interactive television through these xvindoxv-on-the-vvorld discourses, the BBC', s public service obligations of universalism and to 'building digital Britain' (DCMS,
  127. (2004). In contrast to the user figures here, Jane Roscoe's study of Big Brother Internet users suggested that the programme had a core fan base who participated in online activities of just 35,000
  128. (2005). In Focus: The Place of Television Studies',
  129. (2004). Independent Review of the BBCs Digital Television Services.
  130. (2001). Inside Television: Television Studies and The Sociology Of Culture',
  131. (2008). Interacting witb Television. Illinois:
  132. (2002). Interactive Audiences? The "Collective Intelligence" of Media Fans',
  133. Interactive Television and Advertising Form in Contemporary US Television',
  134. (2002). Interactivity: A Concept Explication'.
  135. (2006). Interface Aesthetics: The Primacy of Televisual Non-Places', paper presented at Screen Conference,
  136. (2006). Internet Governance in the UK',
  137. (2005). Interpreting Television.
  138. (2003). Introduction: Issues in the Theory and Practice of Media Convergence',
  139. (2000). Introduction: Theorizing the Digital Land Rush',
  140. (1999). Introduction',
  141. (1997). Inventing Space: Toward a Taxonomy of On- and Offscreen Space in Video Games',
  142. (2001). Issues of judgement and Value in Television Studies',
  143. (1996). Journeys For Those Who Can Not Travel": Promenade Cinema and the Museum Life Group',
  144. Let the Blood Ri iii Free (McFadyen ,
  145. (1998). like other discussions of the BBC during this and subsequent periods (c. f. Collins, 2002,2006; losifidis, 2005; Steemers,
  146. (2007). Little Players, Big Shows: Television's New Smaller Screens and the Aesthetics of Convergence',
  147. (2000). Live TV is Still Alive',
  148. (1999). Liveness. London &
  149. (2001). Living on Dawson's Creek: Teen Viewers, Cultural Convergence and Television Overflow',
  150. (1996). Living Room Wars: Retbinking Media Audiencefor a Postmodern World. London &
  151. (1996). Ltfe on the Screen: Identity in the age of the Internet.
  152. (1992). Make Roomfor 7 eleilsion and the Family Ideal in PostwarAmetica. Chicago & London:
  153. (2000). Makeover Takeover on British Television',
  154. (1994). Making it National. - Nationalism and Australian Popular Culture,
  155. (2001). Manovich notes in relation to the variability inherent in new media forms, 4by passing on these choices to the user, the author also passes on the responsibility to represent the world and the human condition in it' (Manovich,
  156. (1993). Mass Communication and Para-Social Interaction',
  157. (2005). McTaggart Lecture', speech given to Royal Television Society,
  158. (1993). meant the programme failed to conform to the middle-class taste codes that Brunsdon
  159. (2002). Media and Identity in Contemporary Europe: Consequences of Global Convergence.
  160. (1989). Media Made Sport: A History of Sports Coverage in the United States',
  161. (2000). Media Sport Audiences - Young People and the Summer of Sport '96: Revisiting Frameworks for Analysis',
  162. (1998). Media Tecbnology and Society: A History: From the Telegrapb to the Internet.
  163. (1996). Mediations: Text and Discourses in Media Studies.
  164. (1994). Melodrama, Serial Form, and Television Today',
  165. (1989). Moments of Television: Neither the Text nor the Audience',
  166. (2000). Money Talks: Broadcasting and Public Culture',
  167. (1987). N*agg [6 episodes each], Lorimar r-, ua I Productions/ABC,
  168. (1986). Narrative Form in American Network Television',
  169. (1999). Ne,; A- Media, New Audiences?, New . 1lectia and socicý),,
  170. (2003). Net Ratings: Defining a New Medium by the Old, Measuring Internet Audiences',
  171. (2004). New Media and Popular Imagination: Launching Radio, Television, and Digital Media in the United States.
  172. (2002). New Media History',
  173. (2003). New Media: A Ci-flical Inti-o(hiction. London &
  174. (2002). New Media: An Introduction. London:
  175. (2002). New Media: From Borges to html',
  176. (1998). New Technologies and Domestic Consumption',
  177. (2003). Niall Ferguson's Imperial Passion',
  178. (2003). Nigbt of the Proms (Kenyon [Controller], BBC/BBCi,
  179. (1994). Non Linearity and Literary Theory',
  180. (1995). Non-Spaces: Introduction to an Antbropology of Supermodernity.
  181. (2001). nuanced theories, such as Lev Manovich's The Language of New Media
  182. (2001). Objectivity and Television News (including greybox on'The BBC and Impartiality)'
  183. (2002). Olympic Athletes and Heroism in Advertising: Gendered Concepts of Valor? ',
  184. (1998). On the Threshold of the "Digital Age": Prospects for Public Service Broadcasting',
  185. (2004). Opening Speecb given to the Interactive TV Sbow Europe
  186. (2004). Pasts Beyond Memory: Evolution,
  187. (2004). Pbase 1: Ofcom Review of Public Service Television Broadcasting.
  188. (2006). Performing Personality as Emotion and Authenticity in W17o Do You Think You Are?,
  189. (1985). Postmodemism: A Preface',
  190. (1985). Postmodernism and Consumer Society',
  191. (1987). Postmodernism and Cultural Performance: Redefining the Parameters',
  192. (1986). Postmodernism and Popular Culture',
  193. (1991). Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism.
  194. (2003). Pressing the Red Button: Consumers and Digital Television',
  195. (2002). previous to the BBC's Building Public Value document, the ITC had already figured choice as a problematic criterion against which public service broadcasting could be measured. The
  196. (1982). Prime Time Ideology: The Hegemonic Process in Television Entertainment',
  197. (1997). Problems with Quality',
  198. (1991). Producer Cboice.
  199. (1997). provides a useful overview of the debates about the relationship of technology and democracy, community and participation that I outlined in
  200. (1997). provides a useful overview of the need to recognise how `different media systems construct different opportunities for political engagement and different levels of thought'
  201. (1996). Public Discourse / Private Fascination: Hybridization in "Trtie-Life-Story"
  202. (2005). Public Service Broadcasting in the Digital Age',
  203. (2000). Public Service Broadcasting: The History of a Concept',
  204. (1993). Public Service Versus the Market Ten Years on:
  205. (2002). r Figure 2.5 Celebrity Big Brother Figure 2.6 SkyGamestar (Sky (Endemol for Channel 4,2001 -) Interactive,
  206. (1996). Radio, Television and Modern Life.
  207. (1998). Random Access Rules',
  208. (2003). Re-imaging the Jhtscltm.. Beyond the Mausoleum. New Vork and London:
  209. (2004). Re-Newing Old Technologies: Astonishment, Second Nature and the Uncanny in Technology From the Previous Turn of the Century',
  210. (1989). Reading Television. London &
  211. (2003). Real-Time Fairy Tales: Cinema Prefiguring Digital Anxiety',
  212. (2004). Reality Goes Pop! " Reality TV, Popular Music and Narratives of Stardom in Pop Idol'
  213. (2004). Record Numbers Follow Olympics via Web and Interactive TV, 7-be Guardian, 20/08/04, online at: http: //media.
  214. (2004). Red Button Revolution - Power to the People',
  215. (2004). Redefining the Home Screen: Technological Convergence as Trauma And Business Plan',
  216. (1993). Refiguring Culture',
  217. (2004). Reflections on Interactivity',
  218. (1999). Remediation: Understanding New Media.
  219. (1997). Remote Control? Politics, Technology and "Electronic Democracy"',
  220. (2004). Report of the hiquirl, into the Circumstances Surrounding the Deatb of Dr David Kelly C.
  221. (2004). Report of the Independent Review of BBC Online. Chaired by Philip Graf.
  222. (2003). reported, 'during the opening stages of the Iraq war, SkyNews outscored the BBC's rolling service by three to one viewers in multichannel homes'.
  223. (2002). Representing Black Britain: Black and Asian Images on Television.
  224. (2002). Representing Sport.
  225. (1992). Review Essay: Struggling for the Ground of Television: Political Economy and Cultural Studies', Quarlerly Review o Film and Video
  226. (1977). Rhetoric of the Image',
  227. (1997). Satellite Dishes and the Landscapes of Tastel
  228. (1996). Satellite Television and Everyday Life: Articulating Tecbnology.
  229. (2001). Searching for the Holy Grail',
  230. (2003). Second Shift Media Aesthetics: Programming, Interactivity and User Flows'.
  231. (2000). Seeing 7-bings: Television in the Age of Unceilainty London:
  232. (2003). Seeing the Past: Simon Scbama's "A History Of Britain" and Public History',
  233. Serving the Nation,
  234. (2004). Sex Lives of the Potato Men (UK,
  235. (2003). Simulating Natural History: Walking with Dinosaurs as Hyper-Real Entertainment',
  236. (1983). Sport on Television: Replay and Display',
  237. (2003). Statement of Programming Policy,
  238. (2005). Strange argues, the "multi-platform project" represents a new and complex form of cultural convergence, creating a text defined by its intertextuality that is concurrent across media sites and interwoven by particular discourses (Strange,
  239. (2003). Strategy, Positioning And Projection in Digital Television: Channel Four and the Commercialisation of Public Service Broadcasting in the UK',
  240. (2006). Stressed by Choice: A Business Model Analysis of the BBC',
  241. (2001). Studying Television News',
  242. (2001). Suspension of Perception: Attention, Spectacle and Modern Culture.
  243. (2004). Taste and Time on Television',
  244. (1992). Tbe Future of the BBC A Consultation Document.
  245. (1994). Tbe Future of the BBC Serving the Nation, Competing Worldwide.
  246. (1985). Tbe Public Service Idea in Britisb Broadcasting - Main Principles. London: British Broadcasting Research Unit.
  247. (1986). Tbe Railwa Journey: The Industrialisation of Time Y and Space in the 1_qb Centug. California:
  248. (1952). Tbe Today Sbow (NBC,
  249. (1993). Tbe Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier.
  250. (1992). Tecbniques of the Observer. - On Vision and Modernity in the 1-0" Century.
  251. (2007). Tele-Branding in TVIII: The Network as Brand and the Programme as Brand', New Review of Film and
  252. (2001). Television and Cultural Studies: Unfinished Business',
  253. (2004). Television and Democracy: Threats and Opportunities',
  254. (1994). Television and Gender',
  255. (2006). Television and Internet Differences by Design: Rendering Liveness, Presence and Lived Space', Convergence:
  256. (1999). Television and New Media Audiences.
  257. (1986). Television and Postmodernism',
  258. (2004). Television and the Trouble with History',
  259. (1983). Television as a Cultural Forum: Implications for Research',
  260. (1923). Television as window-on-the-world The wavebands available in any country must be regarded as a valuable form of public property; and the right to use them for any purpose should be given after full and careful consideration (Sykes Committee,
  261. (2000). Television Drama: Realism, Modernism, and Britisb Culture.
  262. (2005). Television Drama: Theories and Identities.
  263. (2000). Television in Transit',
  264. (2007). Television is Happening: Methodological Considerations for Capturing Digital Television Reception',
  265. (1995). Television Performance: Being, Acting and "Corpsing",
  266. (1994). Television Sport as Mas(culine) Distraction',
  267. (1998). Television Under the Tories. - Broadcasting Policy
  268. (1998). Television, Broadcasting, Flow: Key Metaphors in Television Theory',
  269. Television: A World in Action',
  270. (1994). Television: Critical Methods and Applications.
  271. (1986). Television: Polysemy and Popularity',
  272. (1992). Television: Tecbnology and Cultural Form.
  273. (2004). Television's Next Generation: Technology/Interface Culture/Flow',
  274. (1986). Television/Sound',
  275. (2002). Televisual Aesthetics in Y2K: From Windows on the World to a Windows Interface',
  276. (1989). Text and Audience',
  277. (1992). Textual Poachers: Television Fans and Participatory Culture.
  278. (2004). The Adventure of Making 7-be Adventure of the Englisb',
  279. (1979). The Aesthetics of Television',
  280. (1986). The Agnostic Narratives of Television Science',
  281. (2006). The Audience Politics of "Enhanced" Television Formats',
  282. (2006). The BBC and Digital Switchover', paper given at Digilal Sivitcbovei- Conlýi-ence,
  283. (1998). The BBC Interactive Television Unit: A Programme Report',
  284. (1998). The Big Switch? Digital Future - Turn-On or Turn-Ofp., Speech to Royal 1ý, Ievision Society Autumn Symposium,
  285. (2000). The Black-Box: The Value of TV and the
  286. (1988). The Box on the Dresser: Memories of Early Radio and Everyday Life',
  287. (2002). The Business of New Media',
  288. (1986). The Cinema of Attraction: Early Film, its Spectators and the Avant-Garde',
  289. (1983). The Concept of Live Television: Ontology \-s. Ideology',
  290. (1999). The Construction of New Digital Media',
  291. (2007). The Days of Commissioning Programmes are Over... ": The BBC's "Bundled Project"', unpublished conference paper to be given at Television Studies Goes Digital,
  292. (2000). The Distinctiveness of Digital Criticism',
  293. (1983). The ecstasy of communication',
  294. (2000). The End of Cinema: Multimedia and Technological Change',
  295. (1991). The Guý( War did not Take
  296. (1987). The in-difference of Television'.
  297. (2002). The Internet and the World Wide Web',
  298. The Life of Alam mals'(Salisbury,
  299. (2004). The Limits of Television? Natural History Programming and the Transformation of Public Service Broadcasting',
  300. (2004). the most prominent production company in reality television, have used the BSkyB subsidiary Skylnteractive to produce applications for high profile programmes such as Big Brother 5 (Endemol for C4.2005) and The Match (Endemol for SkyOne,
  301. (2002). The New Intertextual Commodity',
  302. (2004). The Olympic Games',
  303. (1986). The Peacock Debate in the UK',
  304. (2006). The Public Service Value of Interactive Television',
  305. (1983). The Social Matrix of Television: Invention in the United States',
  306. (2002). The Sopranos as HBO Brand Equity: The Art of Commerce in the Age of Digital Reproduction',
  307. (2004). The Virtual Window',
  308. (1988). The Work of Culture in the Age of Cybernetic Systems',
  309. (1998). This is not Television
  310. (2005). Tomb Raiders and Space Invaders:
  311. (1979). Towards a Television Aesthetic',
  312. (1998). Towards an Archaeology of the Computer Screen',
  313. (2000). Trigger Happy: 7-be Inner Life of Videogames. London: Fourth Estate Ltd.
  314. (1992). Truly Awful News on Television',
  315. (2003). Tulip Theory',
  316. (2003). Turning off the Television: Broadcasting's Uncertain Fliffire. Syclney: University of NSNXI'
  317. (1992). TV Through the Looking Glass',
  318. (1982). Understanding the News.
  319. (2002). Understanding Women's Magazines.
  320. (2004). Unearthing the Real Meaning of D-Day', 7-be Observer,
  321. (2003). Unnatural History? Deconstructing the Walking with Dinosaurs Phenomenon',
  322. (1999). Uses of Television.
  323. (1992). Video Playtime: Tbe Gendering of a Leisure Tecbnology. London and
  324. (1998). Virtualities: Television, Media An and Cyberculture. Indianapolis:
  325. (1992). Visible Fictions. London: Routledge (Original work published
  326. (2000). Visual Digital Culture: Surface Play and Spectacle in New Media Genres. London &
  327. (2001). VR in the ER: ER's use of E-Media',
  328. (2001). Walking witb Beasts (Haines,
  329. (1999). Walking witb Dinosaurs (Green/Haines/james/Learoyd/Lynch/Orr [6 episodes each], BBC/Discovery,
  330. (1997). want to concentrate more directly on the mobility offered by digital media forms here. As Janet Murray's work on digital, interactiVe texts argues, digital media present environments 'with 'space that 211 we can move tbrougb'
  331. (1986). Watchilig Television.. A Pantheon Guide to Populai- Culliti-c.
  332. (2002). Watching the Internet',
  333. (1995). Waving the Flag: Constructing a National Cinema iii Britain.
  334. (1988). Wben Old Tecbnologies Were New: 7binking About Electric Communication in the Late Nineteentb Century.
  335. (2006). Wbite Paper -A Public Service For Alk
  336. (2004). Wbo do you tb ink you are? (Carter/Smith, Wall to Wall for BBC,
  337. (1999). Wbo Wants to be a Millionaire? (Knight [series' creator], Celador for ITV,
  338. (1986). We might most easily align this to Tom Gunning's work on the early cinema of attractions, whereby the narrative or content becomes secondary or, in his words, a 'frame upon which to string a demonstration of the magical possibilities of cinema' (Gunning,
  339. we need to specify the kind of Journeys" that are made ... Who stays at home? Who feels the need to escape the confines? " (Moores, quoted in Morley,
  340. (2003). Web 7-beory: An Introduction.
  341. Welcome to the Dreambouse: Popular. 11edia and Postwar Suburbs.
  342. (2004). What iP: Charting Television's New Textual Boundaries',
  343. (1998). What is the "Television" of Television Studies? ',
  344. (1999). which experienced numerous delays in its launch, SkySportsActive was given unlimited bandwidth to develop its interactive 177 application - at the time a very precious commodity (Source: What Satellite,
  345. (1998). White Nation: Tantasises of Wlbite Supremacy in a Multicultural Society.
  346. (2003). Why the BBC has a Right to be Interactive'.
  347. (2000). Wildlife Films. Pennsylvania:
  348. (1953). Winky Dink & You (Heyward/Prichett/Wyckoff [series' creators], CBS,
  349. (1929). with a Movie Camera (Vertov,
  350. (1999). with the commencement of SkySportsExtra (now SkySportsActive) to accompany a major Premier League soccer match. Sky promoted the spectacle of interactivity as `nothing less than a glimpse into the future -a future where you can be in control' (SkyView,
  351. within the British television landscape this strategy is most evident in the BBC's 360 degree commissioning strategy announced in 2005, which brings with it public service rather than commercial models.
  352. (2002). Wondrous Difference. - Cinema, Anthropology and Turn-of-tbe-Century Visual Culture.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.