Location of Repository

Determinants of corporate image formation: a consumer-level model incorporating corporate identity mix elements and unplanned communication factors

By Elif Karaosmanoğlu


This thesis aims to extend the current knowledge about corporate image formation process by developing a comprehensive model which incorporates corporate identity mix elements (i.e. symbolism, communication, and behaviour) and unplanned communication factors (i.e. interpersonal, intermediary and intrapersonal communication). By examining the proposed conceptual model, this study challenges the claims of anything a company does communicate its identity (Balmer, 1997, 2001; Van Riel and Balmer, 1997) by testing the impact of company-driven communication efforts on corporate image formation in the consumer context. It also adopts the understanding of corporate image as a composite product of multiple communication factors (Bhattacharya and Sen, 2003; Cornelissen, 2000) and in addition to formal communication efforts it specifically tests the role of interpersonal communication, intermediary communication and intrapersonal communication factors in corporate image formation (Cornelissen, 2000).\ud \ud This research adopts a predominantly quantitative approach which is supported by insights from an exploratory phase that encompasses in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. The main survey data is derived from a cross-sectional survey which is conducted in Turkey. The data drawn from 439 questionnaires is analysed by multivariate data analysis technique including exploratory factor analysis (EFA), Cronbach alpha, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modelling (SEM).\ud \ud The findings show that not every aspect of corporate identity mix elements (e.g. corporate aesthetics, staff apparel) is considered to be salient communicators of corporate identity by consumers. They also indicate that when consumers attribute positive feelings to a company’s corporate visual identity systems, when they think that marketing communication activities reflect corporate values, and when they perceive a company as socially responsible, they tend to form a favourable image of that organisation. Moreover, the results highlight that interpersonal communication (word-of-mouth information exchange among close friends and relatives) and intrapersonal factors (i.e. corporate associations gap, consumer-company identification, emotional appeal, consumer-company value congruence) are determinants of corporate image formation. However, it is found that employee behaviour and intermediary communication may not activate immediate associations about corporate image

Topics: HF, HD
OAI identifier: oai:wrap.warwick.ac.uk:2452

Suggested articles



  1. (1998). A Communication-Based Marketing Model for Mark-cting Rclationshipý-,
  2. (1987). A Company Study: Organising for Global Identity",
  3. (1994). A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the End-User Computing Satisfaction Instrumenf',
  4. (2003). A Feature Coherence Approach to Organisational ldcntity",
  5. (1987). A Field Study of Causal inferences and Consumer Reaction: The View from the Airport,
  6. (1991). A Framework for Marketing Image Management",
  7. (1977). A Method for Developing TailormadeSemantic Differentials for Specific Marketing Content Areas",
  8. (2003). A Model of Fan Identification: Antecedents and Sponsorships Outcomes",
  9. (1984). A Model of the Distributor's Perspective of Distributor-Manufacturer Working Relationship",
  10. (1999). A Multi-country Comparison of the Drive for IMC",
  11. (1989). A New Approach to the Corporate Image Process",
  12. (1979). A Paradigm for Developing Better Measures of Marketing Constructs",
  13. (1985). A Path Analytic Model of Store Loyalty Involving Self-concept, Store Image, Geographic Loyalty and Socioeconomic Status",
  14. (1991). A Review of Attribution Theory in Achievement Contexts",
  15. (2002). A Social Actor Conception of Organisational Identity and Its Implications for the Study of Organisational Reputation",
  16. (2000). A Stakeholder Approach to Organisational Identity",
  17. (1974). Achievement Motivation and Altrihution Theory,
  18. (1992). Alumni and Their Alma Mater: A Partial Test of the Reformulated Model of Organisational Identification",
  19. (1986). An Altributional Theory of Motivation and Emotion,
  20. (1985). An Attributional Theory of Achievement Motivation and Emotion",
  21. (1996). An Experiment in Changing Corporate Image in the Financial Services Industry in the UK",
  22. (1974). An Index for Factorial Simplicity".
  23. (2003). An Investigation of Self-Concept: Actual and Ideal Self-congruence Compared in the Context of Service Evaluation",
  24. (1988). An Updated Paradigm for Scale Development Incorporating Unidimensionality and Its Assessment",
  25. (2002). Analysing Social Science Data,
  26. (2002). Analysing the German Corporate Reputation Landscape',
  27. (2001). Antecedents of Commitment and Trust
  28. (1996). Applications of Structural Equation Modeling in Marketing and Consumer Research: A Review",
  29. (1984). Architecture at Work",
  30. (1991). Assessing Constr-Lict Validity in Organisational Research".
  31. (1989). Assessing the Role of Contingency Awareness in Attitudinal Conditioning with Implications for Advertising Research",
  32. (1967). Attribution Tbeory In Social Psychology",
  33. (1980). Attribution Theory and Research",
  34. (1972). Attribution: Perceiving the Causes of Behavior, Gencral
  35. (1987). Attributional Influences on Consumers'
  36. (2003). Attributions as Behaviour Explanations: Towards A New Theory",
  37. (1961). Basic Dimensions of the Corporate Image",
  38. (1953). Basic Objectives Which Shape the Character of a Company"..
  39. (1996). Basic Principles of Structural Equation Modelling,
  40. (2000). be Influence of CauseRelated Marketing on Consumer Choice: Does One Good Turn Deserve Another? "tJournal of the
  41. (1975). Beyond the Two Disciplines of Social Psychology",
  42. (1999). Brand Management through Narrowing the Gap between Brand Identity and Brand Reputation",
  43. (1999). Brand Matras: Rationale, Criteria and Examples",
  44. (2003). Brand Synthesis: the Multidimensionality of Brand Knowledge",
  45. (2002). Branding and Brand Equity",
  46. (2003). Bringing the Corporation into Corporate Branding",
  47. (1991). Building Societies: Change, Strategy and I Corporate Identity",
  48. (1996). Building Strong Brands,
  49. (1989). Building Tbeories from Case Study Research",
  50. (2000). Built to Last: Successful Habits of Visionary Companies, Random House.
  51. (1985). Case Research in Marketing: Opportunities, Problems and a Process",
  52. (1993). Cautions in the Use of Difference Scores in Consumer Research,
  53. (2000). Classifying Managerial Responses to Multiple Organizational Identities",
  54. (1993). Client Perceptions of Integrated Marketing Communications",
  55. (2001). Combining IS Research Methods: Towards a Pluralist Methodology",
  56. (1986). Communication and Persuasion: Central and Peripheral Routes to, 411itude Change, Springcr-WrIag,
  57. (1970). Communication by Design: A Study in Corporate Identity, McGraw-Hill,
  58. (2002). Communication in Post-modcrn Integrated Marketing",
  59. (1996). Company Advertising with a Social Dimension: The Role of Non-cconomic Criteria",
  60. (1984). Company Image and Reality: A Critique of Corporate Communications,
  61. (1993). Conceptualising, Measuring, and Managing Customer-Based !,.,
  62. (1994). Conceptualizing the Integrated Marketing Communications Phenomenon: An examination of Its Impact on Advertising Practices and Its Implications for Advertising Research",
  63. (1981). Construct Validity: A Review of Basic Issues and Marketing Practices",
  64. (1998). Consumer and Their Brands: Developing Relationship Theory in Consumer Research",
  65. (2000). Consumer Lifestyles in Turkey", Available online on http: //www. euromonitor. com/jzm idy I /frame. asp [accessed on the 21" of May,
  66. (2002). Consumer Perceptions of Internet Retail Service Quality",
  67. (1984). Consumer Reactions to Product Failure: An Attributional Approach,
  68. (1967). Consumer Self-concept, Symbolism and Market Behaviour: A Theoretical Approach",
  69. (2003). Consumer-Company Identification: A Framework for Understanding Consumers' Relationships with Companies",
  70. (1977). Consumers' Attributions of the Causes of Their Product Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction",
  71. (1998). Corporate Associations in Marketing: Antecedents and Consequences",
  72. (1995). Corporate Branding and Connoisseurship",,
  73. (2001). Corporate Branding and Corporate Brand Performance",
  74. (2003). Corporate Brands: What are they? What of Them? ".
  75. (2000). Corporate Communication: The American Picture", Corporate Communication:
  76. (1998). Corporate Communications, 2'd Ed.,
  77. (1987). Corporate Discourse: Public Relations and Issue Managemenf',
  78. (1998). Corporate Identity and Advent of Corporate Marketing",
  79. (2002). Corporate Identity and Corporate Associations: A Framework for Future Research",
  80. (1999). Corporate Identity and Corporate Communications: Creating A Strategic Advantage",
  81. (2001). Corporate Identity and Corporate Image Revisited",
  82. (1984). Corporate Identity behind the Visual Overstatements",
  83. (2001). Corporate Identity Management: The Construct, Some Business Antecedents and Outcomes", Unpublished PhD Thesis,
  84. (2001). Corporate Identity Metaphor: Perspectives, Problems and Prospects",
  85. (2001). Corporate Identity, Corporate Branding and Corporate Marketing: Seeing through the Fog",
  86. (2005). Corporate Identity: Concept, Components and Contribution",
  87. (2000). Corporate Identity: External Reality or Intemal Fif',
  88. (1989). Corporate Identity: Making Business Strategy Visible through Design,
  89. (1979). Corporate Identity: Name and Perception, The Conference Board,
  90. (1997). Corporate Identity: Past, Present and Future", Department ofMarketing Working Paper Series,
  91. (1997). Corporate Identity: The Concept, Its Measurement and Management",
  92. (1998). Corporate Identity: There is More to It than Meets the Eye",
  93. (1996). Corporate Image as A Stereotype: The Effects of Motivation and Information Type on Evaluations".
  94. (1997). Corporate Image as an Impression Formation Process: Prioritising Personal, Organisational, and Environmental Audience Factors",
  95. (1990). Corporate Image-We All Have One, But Few Work to Protect and Project It".
  96. (2001). Corporate Image: A Conceptual Framework for Strategic Planning", Enhancing Knowledge Development
  97. (2000). Corporate Image: An Audience Centred Model", Corporate Communications:
  98. (1962). Corporate Images are not Stereotypes",
  99. (1999). Corporate Marketing - Rediscovering Ducker's Lost Agenda for Marketing", Working Paper Series,
  100. (2001). Corporate Marketing and Service Brands: Moving beyond the Fast-Moving Consumer Goods Model",
  101. (2002). Corporate Reputation in the Eye of the Beholder",
  102. (2002). Corporate Reputation Review
  103. (2000). Corporate Reputation versus Corporate Branding: The Realist Debate", Corporate Communications:
  104. (2001). Corporate Reputation: Seeking a Definition",
  105. (1992). Corporate Reputations: Strategies for Developing the Corporate Brand,
  106. (1997). Corporate Social Performance and Organizational Attractiveness to Prospective Employees",
  107. (1966). Corporate Style versus Corporate Image".
  108. (2000). Correlates of Integrated Marketing Communications",
  109. (1972). Correlates of Organisational Identification as A Function of Career Pattern and Organisational Type",
  110. (2001). Creating Corporate Reputations: Identify, Image and Performance,
  111. (1998). Customer Loyalty and Complex Services: The Impact of Corporate Image on Quality, Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty for Customers with Varying Degrees of Service Expertise",
  112. (1999). Cut-off Criteria for Fit Indexes in Covariance Structure Analysis: Conventional Criteria versus New Alternatives",
  113. (1989). Dcsigning Logos",
  114. (1987). Defensive Marketing Strategy by Customer Complaint Management: A Tbeoretical Analysis",
  115. (1990). Defining and Measuring Company Image",
  116. (2001). Defining Who You Are by What You're Not: Organisational Dis identification and The National Rifle Association",
  117. (1990). Delivering Quality Service: Balancing Customer Perceptions and Expectations, The Free Press,
  118. (1997). Deriving an Operational Measure of Corporate Identity",
  119. (1966). Design Co-ordinallon and Corporate Image,
  120. (1975). Designing Corporate Symbols, Art Direction
  121. (2003). Determinants of the Corporate Identity Construct: A Review of the Literature",
  122. (1999). Developing A Community Image Program: An Essential Function of Business Communication",
  123. (1975). Developing a Corporate Identity: How to Stand Out in the Crowd,
  124. (2000). Developing Corporate Brands through Considering Internal and External Stakeholders",
  125. (2001). Development and Management of Corporate Image in South Africa",
  126. (1996). Diversity in Information Systems Research: Threat, Promise and Responsibility,
  127. (2001). Does Doing Good Always Lead to Doing Better? Consumer Reactions to Corporate Social Responsibility",
  128. (2004). Drivers of Global Business Success: Lessonsfrom Emergin Markets,
  129. (1998). Effects of Causal Attributions on Personnel Decisions: A Social Motivation Perspective",
  130. (1991). Effects of Word-of-Mouth and Product -, Attribute Information on Persuasion: An Accessibility-Diagnosticity Perspective, "
  131. (2000). Embeddedness, Social Identity and Mobility: Why Finns Leave the NASDAQ and Join the New York Stock Exchange",
  132. (1990). Enhanced Explanations of Word of Mouth Communications: The Power of Relationships",
  133. (1990). Evaluating Service Encounters: The effects of Physical Suffoundings and Employee Responses",
  134. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Modcls with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error",
  135. (2006). Examining User Perceptions of ThirdParty Organization Credibility and Trust in an E-retailer",
  136. (1996). Exploring Dccision-making Approaches and Responsibility for Developing Marketing Communications Strategy",
  137. (1998). Exploring the Corporate Identity/Corporate Image Interface: An Empirical Study of Accountancy Firms",
  138. (2000). Export Marketing Standardisation and Its Influence on Export Performance: A Structural Model Examination", Unpublished PhD Thesis,
  139. (1994). Focus Groups: A Practical Guidefor Applied Research,
  140. (2001). From the Pentagon: A New Identity Framework",
  141. (2002). Gaps between Internal and External Perceptions of the Corporate Brand",
  142. (1997). Getting to Know You: A Theory of Strategic .
  143. (2000). Global Corporate Visual Identity Systems: Using and Extended Marketing Mix",
  144. (1994). Going Green Is Not Optional",
  145. (1998). Guidelines for Selecting or Modifying Logos",
  146. (1967). How Corporate Image Research Is Used",
  147. (1961). How Much of the Corporate Image Is Stereotype",
  148. (1999). How People Explain Behavior: A New Theoretical Framework",
  149. (1959). How to Evaluate Your Company Image",
  150. (1995). How to Measure Survey Reliability and Validity,
  151. (1992). Human Motivation: Metaphors, Yheories and Research, Sage Publications,
  152. (1969). Identification and Some Conditions for Organisational Commitmenf',
  153. (1998). Identity in Organisallons: Building Theory through Conversations,
  154. (1996). Identity, Image, and Issue Interpretation: Sense-making During Strategic Change in Academia",
  155. (2006). Identity, Intended Image, Construed Image, and Reputation: An Interdisciplinary Framework and 283 Suggested Terminology",
  156. (1993). Image and Substance: From Symbolic to Behavioral Relationships",
  157. (1997). IMC Use and Client-Ad Agency Relationships",
  158. (1998). IMC- A UK Ad Agency Perspective",
  159. (1981). Impression Management Theory and Social Psychological Research,
  160. (1980). Impression Management,
  161. (2001). Individual and Situational Factors Influencing Negative Word-of-mouth Behavioue',
  162. (1997). Influences on Consumer Use of Word-of-mouth Recommendation Sources",
  163. (2002). Institutional Identity: Symbolic Isomorphism and Organisational Names",
  164. (1997). Integrated Marketing Communications in US Advertising Agencies: An Exploratory Study",
  165. (1998). Integrated Marketing Communications, Buttcrworth licincmann,
  166. (1991). Integrated Marketing Communications: A Survey offational Consumer Goods Advertising,
  167. (1993). Integrated marketing communications: Maybe definition is in",
  168. (1997). Integrated Marketing Public Relations",
  169. (1998). Intemal Affairs".
  170. (1991). Intergroup Relations and Organisational Dilemmas: The Role of Categorisation Processes",
  171. (1999). International Corporate Visual Identity: Standardisation or Localisation",
  172. (2000). Introducing LISREL,
  173. (2002). Introduction: The Challenges of Corporate Branding",
  174. (1976). Item Selection: A Practical Tool in Item Selection".
  175. (1997). Leveraging the Corporate Brand,
  176. (2003). Linking Consumcr Perccption to Prcfcrcncc of Retailer Stores: An Empirical Assessment of the Multi-attribute of Store Image",
  177. (1999). Logistics Research Metohds: Employing Structural Equation to the Test for Construct Validity",
  178. (1994). Logovalue Survey", proprietary research report.
  179. (1989). Looking at Logos",
  180. (1977). Make the Most of Your Corporate Image",
  181. (1995). Managing Corporatc Imagc and Identity",
  182. (2005). Managing Corporate Identity: An Internal Perspective", -
  183. (1998). Managing Corporate Image and Corporate Reputation",
  184. (2001). Managing Customer-Initiated Contacts with Manufacturers: The Impact on Share of Category Requirements and 282 Word-of- Mouth Behavior",
  185. (1993). Managing the Corporate Brand: The Effects of Corporate Images and Corporate Brand Extensions",
  186. (2002). Managing the Multiple Identities of the Corporation",
  187. (1997). Marketing Aesthetics,
  188. (2000). Marketing Communications Classics,
  189. (2001). Marketing Images - Construct Definition, Measurement Issues, and Theory Development",
  190. (1988). Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, Implementation and Control,
  191. (2003). Marketing Research: An Applied Approach, 2 nd European Edition,
  192. (1999). Marketing Research: Methodological Foundations, 6h Ed.,
  193. (1991). Marketing Services: Competing through Quality,
  194. (2001). Mastering the Marketing Communications Mix: Micro and Macro Perspectives on Integrated Marketing Communication Programs",
  195. (1988). Measuring Corporate Images: A Review of Alternative Approachesý",
  196. (1998). Measuring Corporate Images",
  197. (1992). Measuring Service Quality: A Reexamination and Extension",
  198. (1974). Measuring the Job Satisfaction of Industrial Salesman",
  199. (2001). Measuring Visual Identity: A Multi-construct Study",
  200. (2000). Measuring Word-of-mouth: The Questions of Who and When",
  201. (2002). Member's Identification with Multiple Identity Organisations".
  202. (1985). Methodology Review: Assessing tjnidimensionality of Tests and Items",
  203. (1992). Mitigating the Effect of Service Encounters",
  204. (1994). Modelling with LISREL: A Guide for the Uninitiated",
  205. (2000). Moderating Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for Group Facilitation, Sage Publications,
  206. (1995). Moments of Truth: Exploring the Corporate ldcntity/Corporatc Image Interface", Unpublished PhD Thesis,
  207. (1998). Multivariale Data Analysis, 5h Edition,
  208. (1998). Multivariate Data Analysis, 50' Edition,
  209. (2002). Negative WOM: Substitute for Supplement to Consumer Complaints".
  210. (1983). Negative Word-of-mouth by Dissatisfied Consumers: A Pilot Study",
  211. (1998). New Strategies in Emerging Markets",
  212. (1986). Nianaging Your Corporate Image".
  213. (1977). Nurturing Corporate Images: Total Communication or Ego Trip",
  214. (1988). On the Evaluation of Structural Equation Models",
  215. (2003). On the Use of 'Borrowed' Scales in CrossNational Rescarch: A Cautionary Note,
  216. (2000). On the Use of Structural Equation Models for Marketing Modelling",
  217. (2001). OPRA: A Cross-Cultural, Multiple-Item Scale for Measuring Organisational-Public Relationships",
  218. (2000). Organ isationa I Identity, Image and Adaptive Instability",
  219. (1985). Organisational Identity",
  220. (1994). Organisational Images and Mcmbcr ldcntiricatiori",,
  221. (1986). Organizational Commitment and Psychological Attachment: The Effects of Compliance, Identification, and Internalization on Prosocial Behavior",
  222. (1983). Paradigms Lost': On theory and Method in Research in Marketing",
  223. (1991). People and Organizational Culture: A Profile Comparison Approach to Assessing Person-organization Fit",. 4cademy ofManagement
  224. (1980). Perfon-nance and Satisfaction in an Industrial Sales Force: I An Examination of Their Antecedents and Simultaneity",
  225. (1996). Person-Organisation Fit: An Integrative Review of Its Conceptualisations, Measurement and Implications",
  226. (1970). Personal Factors in Organisational Identification",
  227. (1987). Planning a Face-Lift: Implementing a I Corporate Image Programme,
  228. (1998). Planning Focus Groups,
  229. (2004). Positioning and Branding Your Organisation",
  230. (1981). Positioning: The Battle for the Mind, Warner Books,
  231. (1987). Practical Issues in Structural Modelling",
  232. (2004). Product-, Corporate-, and CountryImage . Dimensions and Purchase Behaviour; A Multi-country Analysis",
  233. (1978). Psychometric Theory,
  234. (1994). Public Relations Techniques, Harcourt Brace College Publishers,
  235. (2001). Qualitative Marketing Research,
  236. (1994). Qualitative Research in Work Contexts",
  237. (2002). Qualitative Research to Validate the RQ-Dimens ions",
  238. (1991). Quality in Service and Quality in Service Organizations: A Model for Quality Assessmenf'.
  239. (1997). Re-examining a Model for Evaluating Information Centre Success Using a Structural Equation Modelling Approach",
  240. (1997). Relations between Organisational Culture Identity and Image",
  241. (1990). Relationship Quality in Services Selling: An Interpersonal Influence Perspective",
  242. (1986). Relationships among Research Design Choices and Psychornetric Properties of Rating Scales",
  243. (1979). Reliability and Validity Assessment,
  244. (1979). Reliability: A Review of Psychometric Basics and Recent Marketing Practices",
  245. (1994). Removing the Financial Performance Halo from Fortune's 'Most Admired' Companies",
  246. (1982). Representing and Testing Organisational Theories: A Holistic Construal",
  247. (2000). Representing the Perceived Ethical Work Climate among Marketing Employees",
  248. (1999). Reputation Management as A Motivation for Sales Structure Decisions",
  249. (1996). Reputation: Realizing Value from Corporate Image,
  250. (1994). Research Design: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches,
  251. (2003). Resolving the Corporate Identity Conundrum: An Exploratory Study of the Concept and Its Contribution",
  252. (1988). Response Determinants in Satisfaction Judgements,
  253. (2001). Rethinking the Brand Concept: New Brand Orientation",
  254. (2002). rowards an Integrated Approach to Corporate Branding - An Empirical Study".
  255. (2000). Scaling the Tower of Babel: Relational Differences between Identity, Image, Culture in Organ isat ions",
  256. (1982). Sel f-image/Product-Im age Congruity and Advertising Strategy",
  257. (2000). Self-Categorization, Affective Commitment and Group Self-Esteem as Distinct Aspects of Social Identity in the Organization",
  258. (1995). Self-concept and 'Advertising Effectiveness: The Influence of Congruency, Cospicuousness and Response Mode",
  259. (1982). Self-concept in Consumer Behaviour: A Critical Review",
  260. (1981). Self-image/Product-image Congruence Models: Testing Selected Models",
  261. (2003). Services Marketing: Integrating Customer Focus across The Firm, McGraw Hill-Irwin,
  262. (1988). SERVQUAL: A Multipleitem Scale for Measuring Consumer Perceptions of Service Quality",
  263. (1962). Seven Principles in Image Formation",
  264. (1999). Shaping Corporate Images: Attributes Used to Form Impressions of Pharmaceutical Companies",
  265. (1958). Sharper Focus for the Corporate Image",
  266. (2000). Social Identity and Self-Categorization Processes in Organizational Contexts, "
  267. (1989). Social Identity Theory and the Organisation",
  268. (1994). Social Perccption and Intcrpersonal Influence: Some Consequences of the Physical Attractiveness Stereotype in a Personal Selling Setting,
  269. (2001). Social Research Methods,
  270. (1987). Social Ties and Word-of-mouth Referral Behavior",
  271. (1979). Sociological Paradigms and Organisational Analysis,
  272. (1982). Some Methods for Specifying Measurement Models to Obtain Unidimensional Construct Measurement",
  273. (1996). Source Effects in Purchase Decisions: The Impact of Physical Attractiveness and Accent of Salesperson",
  274. (2005). Spreading the Word: Investigating Antecedents of Consumers' Positive Word-of-Mouth Intentions and Behaviors in a Retailing Context",
  275. (1985). SRM Forum: Corporate Image - An Integral Part of Strategy",
  276. (1971). Statistical Analysis of Sets of Congeneric Tests",
  277. (1982). Store Atmosphere: An Environmental Psychology Approach",
  278. (1992). Strategic Brand Management,
  279. (1989). Strategically Desirable Brand Name Characteristics",
  280. (1988). Structural Equation Modelling in Practice: A Review and Recommended Two-step Approach",
  281. (1989). Structural Equations with Latent Variables,
  282. (1996). Survey in Social Research,
  283. (1992). Surviving Your Dissertation: A Comprehensive Guide to Content andProcess,
  284. (1998). t'Processes of a case study methodology for postgraduate research in Marketing",
  285. (1957). Tbe Corporate Look: A Problem in Design".
  286. (2000). Tbe Reputation Quotient": A Multi-stakeholder Measure of Corporate Reputation",
  287. (1985). Tbe Ritual Dimension of Consumer Behaviour",
  288. (1987). Tbe Stigma of Bankruptcy: Spoiled Organisational Image and Its Management",
  289. (1981). Testing A Self-Concept Model Using A Tangible Product",
  290. (2001). The Added Value of Corporate Logos: An Empirical Study",
  291. (2001). The Appeal of Integration: Managing Communication in Modem Organ i sations",
  292. (1996). The Behavioral Consequences of Service Quality",
  293. (1997). The Big Ten: The Big Emerging Markets and How 7hey Will Change Our Lives, Basic Books,
  294. (2000). The Brand Report Card",
  295. (1996). The circle of synergy: theoretical perspectives and an evolving IMC research agenda",
  296. (1997). The Company and the Product: Corporate Associations and Consumer Product Responses".
  297. (1997). The Corporate
  298. (2003). The Corporate Identity Management Process Revisited",
  299. (1978). The Corporate Personality: An Inquiry Into The Nature of Corporate Identity,
  300. (1997). The Culture of the Branch Team and Its Impact on Service Delivery and Corporate Identity",
  301. (1967). The Discovery of the Grounded Theory: Strategiesfor Qualitative Research,
  302. (1992). The Effects of Corporate Images and Branding Strategies on New Product Evaluations",
  303. (1992). The Effects of Sequential Introduction of Brand Extensions",
  304. (2000). The Good, the Bad, and the Ambivalent: Managing Identification Among Amway Distributors, "
  305. (1988). The Image Concept: Its Place in Consumer Psychology and Its Potential for Other Psychological Areas",
  306. (1973). The Integration of Field Work and Survey Methods",
  307. (1979). The Measurement of Organisational Commitmenf',
  308. (2001). The Measurement of Word-of-Mouth Communication and an Investigation of Service Quality and Customer Commitment as Potential",
  309. (1998). The Mediating Role of Corporate Image on Customers' Retention decisions: An Investigation in Financial Services",
  310. (1967). The Names of U.
  311. (2001). The Personification Metaphor as A Measurement Approach to Corporate Reputation",
  312. (1958). The Psychology ofInterpersonal Relations,
  313. (1991). The Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility: Toward the Moral Management of Organizational Stakeholders",
  314. (1996). The Quality and Effectiveness of Marketing Strategy: Effects of Emotional and Dysfunctional Conflict in Intraorganisational Relationships",
  315. (1995). The Questfor Identity - Corporate Identity, Strategies, Methods andExamples,
  316. (2002). The Relationship between Consumer Ethnocentrism and Human Values",
  317. (1986). The Relationship between Corporate Culture and Corporate Identity",
  318. (2002). The Reputation Quotient Project: First Steps towards A Cross-nationality Valid Measure of Corporate Reputation",
  319. (2000). The Research Interview,
  320. (2006). The Role of Corporate Social Responsibility in Strengthening Multiple Stakeholder Relationships: A Field Experimenf',
  321. (2001). The Role of Interpersonal Liking in Building Trust in Long-term Channel Memberships",
  322. (1997). The Social Construction of Office Space",
  323. (1985). The Social Identity Theory of Intergroup Behavior",
  324. (1991). The Social Self. On Being the Same and Different as the Same Time",
  325. (1993). The Soul of a Business: Managingfor Profit and the Common Good, Bantam, Des Plaines,
  326. (1983). The Strength of Weak Conversational Ties in the Flow of Information and Influence",
  327. (1982). The Use of Focus Groups for Idea Generation: The Effects of Group Size, Acquaintanceship, and Moderator on Response Quantity and Quality",
  328. (1991). The Use of LISREL in Validating Marketing Constructs",
  329. (1999). The World Economic Forum in Partnership with Deloitte Touche Tomahatsu
  330. (1990). Theoretical Model and Praxis of Total Communication",
  331. (1999). Time Styles and the Waiting Expcrience: An Exploratory Study".
  332. (1998). To Be or Not To Be: Central Questions in Organisational Identification",
  333. (2002). Top of Mind Awareness of Corporate Brands among the Dutch Public",
  334. (1999). Towards a Definitive- Model of the Corporate Identity Management Process",
  335. (1997). Towards A Framework for Managing Corporate Identity",
  336. (1997). Understanding Corporate Identity: The French School of Tbought",
  337. (1994). Understanding Corporate Image: Implications for Communication Strategy, Unpublished
  338. (1997). Using a Hierarchy of Effects Approach to Gauge the Effectiveness of CSR to Generate Goodwill towards the Firm: Financial versus Non-financial Impacts",
  339. (2000). Using Multivariate Statistics, Allyn and
  340. (1986). Viewpoint: Place and Space in Sociological Fieldwork",
  341. (1997). Visual Identity: Trappings or Substance? ",
  342. (1997). Visual Identity: Trappings or Substance",
  343. (1990). What Is In A Name? Reputation Building and Corporate Strategy",
  344. (2004). When Corporate Image Affects Product Evaluations: The Moderating Role of Perceived Risk",
  345. (2003). Who Are We Now? M&Ss and Corporate Visual Identity",
  346. (1996). Who's Tops and Who Decides? The Social Construction for Corporate Reputations",
  347. (1971). Word of mouth in Low Risk Innovations",
  348. (1998). Word-of-mouth: Understanding and Managing Referral Marketing",
  349. (2002). World Economic Outlook-April 2002", Available online on http: //www. imf. orv-/extemal/pubs/ft/weo/2002/01/index. htm, [accessed on the 21' of

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.