We analyse how a probing particle modifies infrared electromagnetic near fields. The particle, assimilated to both electric and magnetic dipoles, represents the tip of an apertureless scanning optical near-field microscope (SNOM). We show that the interaction can be accounted for by ascribing to the particle effective dipole polarizabilities that add the effect of retardation to the one of the image dipole. Apart from these polarizabilities, the SNOM signal expression depends only on the fields without tip perturbation, shown to be closely related to the electromagnetic density of states (EM-LDOS) and essentially linked to the sample's optical properties, so that measuring local spectra of heated samples is equivalent to performing a local surface spectroscopy. We also analyse the case where the probing particle is hotter. We evaluate in this case the impact of the effective polarizabilities on the tip-sample near-field radiative heat transfer. We also show that such an heated probe above a surface also performs a surface spectroscopy. The calculations agree well with available experimental data
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