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Calibration and characterization of the IceCube photomultiplier tube

By R. Abbasi, Y. Abdou, T. Abu-Zayyad, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, K. Andeen, J. Auffenberg, X. Bai, M. Baker, S. W. Barwick, R. Bay, J. L. Bazo Alba, K. Beattie, J. J. Beatty, S. Bechet, J. K. Becker, K.-H. Becker, M. L. Benabderrahmane, J. Berdermann, P. Berghaus, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Bertrand, D. Z. Besson, M. Bissok, E. Blaufuss, D. J. Boersma, C. Bohm, O. Botner, L. Bradley, J. Braun, S. Buitink, M. Carson, D. Chirkin, B. Christy, J. Clem, S. Cohen, C. Colnard, D. F. Cowen, M. V. D'Agostino, M. Danninger, C. De Clercq, L. Demirörs, O. Depaepe, F. Descamps, P. Desiati, G. De Vries-Uiterweerd, T. DeYoung, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, J. Dreyer, J. P. Dumm, M. R. Duvoort, R. Ehrlich, J. Eisch, R. W. Ellsworth, O. Engdegård, S. Euler, P. A. Evenson, O. Fadiran, A. R. Fazely, T. Feusels, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, M. M. Foerster, B. D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, R. Franke, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, R. Ganugapati, M. Geisler, L. Gerhardt, L. Gladstone, A. Goldschmidt, J. A. Goodman, D. Grant, T. Griesel, A. Groß, S. Grullon, R. M. Gunasingha, M. Gurtner, C. Ha, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, K. Han, K. Hanson, Y. Hasegawa, J. Haugen, K. Helbing, P. Herquet, S. Hickford, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, A. Homeier, K. Hoshina, D. Hubert, W. Huelsnitz, J.-P. Hülß, P. O. Hulth, K. Hultqvist, S. Hussain, R. L. Imlay, M. Inaba, A. Ishihara, J. Jacobsen, G. S. Japaridze, H. Johansson, J. M. Joseph, K.-H. Kampert, A. Kappes, T. Karg, A. Karle, J. L. Kelley, N. Kemming, P. Kenny, J. Kiryluk, F. Kislat, N. Kitamura, S. R. Klein, S. Knops, G. Kohnen, H. Kolanoski, L. Köpke, D. J. Koskinen, M. Kowalski, T. Kowarik, M. Krasberg, T. Krings, G. Kroll, K. Kuehn, T. Kuwabara, M. Labare, S. Lafebre, K. Laihem, H. Landsman, R. Lauer, A. Laundrie, R. Lehmann, D. Lennarz, J. Lünemann, Jens Madsen, P. Majumdar, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, H. S. Matis, M. Matusik, K. Meagher, M. Merck, P. Mészáros, T. Meures, E. Middell, N. Milke, H. Miyamoto, T. Montaruli, R. Morse, S. M. Movit, R. Nahnhauer, J. W. Nam, U. Naumann, P. Nießen, D. R. Nygren, S. Odrowski, A. Olivas, M. Olivo, M. Ono, S. Panknin, L. Paul, C. Pérez De Los Heros, J. Petrovic, A. Piegsa, D. Pieloth, A. C. Pohl, R. Porrata, J. Posselt, P. B. Price, M. Prikockis, G. T. Przybylski, K. Rawlins, P. Redl, E. Resconi, W. Rhode, M. Ribordy, A. Rizzo, P. Robl, J. P. Rodrigues, P. Roth, F. Rothmaier, C. Rott, C. Roucelle, D. Rutledge, B. Ruzybayev, D. Ryckbosch, H.-G. Sander, P. Sandstrom, S. Sarkar, K. Schatto, S. Schlenstedt, T. Schmidt, D. Schneider, A. Schukraft, A. Schultes, O. Schulz, M. Schunck, D. Seckel, B. Semburg, S. H. Seo, Y. Sestayo, S. Seunarine, A. Silvestri, A. Slipak, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, G. Stephens, T. Stezelberger, R. G. Stokstad, S. Stoyanov, E. A. Strahler, T. Straszheim, G. W. Sullivan, Q. Swillens, I. Taboada, A. Tamburro, O. Tarasova, A. Tepe, S. Ter-Antonyan, C. Terranova, S. Tilav, P. A. Toale, D. Tosi, D. Turčan, N. Van Eijndhoven, J. Vandenbroucke, A. Van Overloop, J. Van Santen, B. Voigt, D. Wahl, C. Walck, T. Waldenmaier, M. Wallraff, M. Walter, C. Wendt, S. Westerhoff, N. Whitehorn, K. Wiebe, C. H. Wiebusch, G. Wikström, D. R. Williams, R. Wischnewski, H. Wissing, K. Woschnagg, C. Xu, X. W. Xu, G. Yodh, S. Yoshida and P. Zarzhitsky

Abstract

Over 5000 PMTs are being deployed at the South Pole to compose the IceCube neutrino observatory. Many are placed deep in the ice to detect Cherenkov light emitted by the products of high-energy neutrino interactions, and others are frozen into tanks on the surface to detect particles from atmospheric cosmic ray showers. IceCube is using the 10-in. diameter R7081-02 made by Hamamatsu Photonics. This paper describes the laboratory characterization and calibration of these PMTs before deployment. PMTs were illuminated with pulses ranging from single photons to saturation level. Parameterizations are given for the single photoelectron charge spectrum and the saturation behavior. Time resolution, late pulses and afterpulses are characterized. Because the PMTs are relatively large, the cathode sensitivity uniformity was measured. The absolute photon detection efficiency was calibrated using Rayleigh-scattered photons from a nitrogen laser. Measured characteristics are discussed in the context of their relevance to IceCube event reconstruction and simulation efforts

Topics: [ SDU.ASTR.HE ] Sciences of the Universe [physics]/Astrophysics [astro-ph]/High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena [astro-ph.HE], [ PHYS.ASTR.HE ] Physics [physics]/Astrophysics [astro-ph]/High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena [astro-ph.HE], [ SDU.ASTR.CO ] Sciences of the Universe [physics]/Astrophysics [astro-ph]/Cosmology and Extra-Galactic Astrophysics [astro-ph.CO], [ PHYS.ASTR.CO ] Physics [physics]/Astrophysics [astro-ph]/Cosmology and Extra-Galactic Astrophysics [astro-ph.CO]
Publisher: Elsevier
Year: 2010
DOI identifier: 10.1016/J.NIMA.2010.03.102
OAI identifier: oai:HAL:in2p3-00706865v1
Provided by: Hal-Diderot
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