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Calcium Phosphate Stone Morphology Can Reliably Predict Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis

By Arnaud Dessombz, Letavernier Emmanuel, Jean-Philippe Haymann, Dominique Bazin and Michel Daudon

Abstract

International audiencePurposeCalcium stones represent 85% to 90% of all urinary calculi, including various crystalline compositions and etiological conditions. Calcium phosphate accounts for 10% to 15% of cases. These stones are mainly related to 3 groups of risk factors, including calcium or phosphate metabolism disturbance, renal acidification defects and urinary tract infection. Identifying the stone etiology often requires extensive metabolic evaluation. We assessed whether stone analysis including morphological typing in addition to stone composition could be a valuable help for diagnosis.Materials and MethodsOf 60,564 stones analyzed by morphological examination and infrared spectroscopy at our laboratory 6,439 (10.6%) were mainly composed of carbapatite. Of these stone 1,093 patients were included in study who had an available etiological diagnosis and stones containing at least 70% of calcium phosphate without struvite.ResultsOf the 1,093 calcium phosphate stones 12.8% showed a peculiar morphology termed IVa2, characterized by a smooth aspect and a glazed brown-yellow appearance with tiny cracks. IVa2 morphology was observed in 96.1% of stones associated with inherited distal renal tubular acidosis. In contrast, the other stones of similar composition but different morphology were related to distal renal tubular acidosis in only 3.9% of cases. In addition, IVa2 stones were found in 65% of calcium phosphate stone formers associated with Sjögren syndrome and in 35% of calcium phosphate stones in patients with medullary sponge kidney. These 2 conditions are related to a mild to moderate distal acidification defect.ConclusionsIdentifying IVa2 stone morphology is clinically relevant because it should prompt clinicians to search for complete or incomplete distal acidosis and initiate specific therapy to decrease recurrence

Topics: kidney, nephrolithiasis, calcium phosphate, acidosis, renal tubular, diagnosis, [ SDV.MHEP ] Life Sciences [q-bio]/Human health and pathology
Publisher: Elsevier
Year: 2015
DOI identifier: 10.1016/j.juro.2014.12.017
OAI identifier: oai:HAL:hal-01148416v1
Provided by: Hal-Diderot

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