International audienceWhile the extent and impact of horizontal transfers in prokaryotes are widely acknowledged,their importance to the eukaryotic kingdom is unclear and thought by many to be anecdotal.Here we report multiple recent transfers of a huge genomic island between Penicillium spp.found in the food environment. Sequencing of the two leading filamentous fungi used incheese making, P. roqueforti and P. camemberti, and comparison with the penicillin producerP. rubens reveals a 575 kb long genomic island in P. roqueforti—called Wallaby—present asidentical fragments at non-homologous loci in P. camemberti and P. rubens.Wallaby is detectedin Penicillium collections exclusively in strains from food environments. Wallaby encompassesabout 250 predicted genes, some of which are probably involved in competition withmicroorganisms. The occurrence of multiple recent eukaryotic transfers in the foodenvironment provides strong evidence for the importance of this understudied and probablyunderestimated phenomenon in eukaryotes
To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.