BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gentamicin pharmacokinetics have not been described in patients undergoing short-daily hemodialysis (SDHD). The aim of this study is to describe gentamicin pharmacokinetics and dialytic clearance (Cl(dial)) in SDHD patients and simulate gentamicin exposure after six dosing regimens to help guide future dosing. METHODS: Six anuric patients undergoing SDHD were enrolled. Patients received intravenous infusion of 2 mg/kg gentamicin on day 1 after the first HD session followed by HD sessions on days 2, 3, and 4. Blood samples for determination of gentamicin concentrations were serially collected. Gentamicin pharmacokinetic parameters and Cl(dial) and interindividual variability terms (IIV) were estimated using NONMEM VII. Influence of patient weight on systemic clearance (Cl(s)) and central volume of distribution (V(c)) and influence of urea removal estimates on Cl(dial) were assessed. The model was used to simulate gentamicin concentrations after six dosing regimens including pre- and postdialysis as well as daily and every-other-day dosing. RESULTS: A two-compartment model with first-order elimination from central compartment described gentamicin pharmacokinetics. Population estimates for Cl(s) and Cl(dial) were 7.6 and 134 ml/min, respectively. Patient weight was statistically significantly associated with Cl(s) and V(c). Predialysis every-other-day regimens were as effective (C(max) ≥8 mg/l and AUC(48 h) ≥140 mg·h/l) and less toxic (C(min) <2 mg/l and AUC(48 h) <240 mg·h/l) than postdialysis regimens. CONCLUSIONS: Estimated gentamicin Cl(dial) is higher than previous estimates with thrice-weekly regimens. Predialysis every-other-day dosing may be recommended during SDHD
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