Location of Repository

From Belfast to Basra: Britain and the 'tri-partite counter-insurgency model'

By Andrew Mumford

Abstract

Counter-insurgency assumed a status during the twentieth century as one of the British military‟s fortes. A wealth of asymmetric warfare experience was accumulated after World War Two, as the small wars of decolonisation offered the army of a fading imperial power the opportunity to regularly deploy against an irregular enemy. Yet this quantity of experience has been misguidedly conflated with quality. This thesis holds that the British, far from being the counter-insurgent exemplars that history has benevolently cast them, have in fact consistently proven to be slow learners and slow strategic burners in the realm of counter-insurgency warfare.\ud The case study-based nature of this thesis, utilising the chronologically and geographically dispersed examples of Malaya (1948-60), Kenya (1952-60), South Yemen (1962-67), the first decade of the Northern Irish „Troubles‟ (1969-79), culminates with an analysis of the recent British counter-insurgency campaign in southern Iraq (2003-09).\ud This thesis will blend historical narrative with critical analysis in order to establish a new paradigm through which to interpret and analyse British inertia in counter-insurgency and help unpack the mythology of inherent British competence in the realm of irregular warfare. Three major dimensions emerge. These elements constitute a „Tri-Partite Counter-Insurgency Model‟, and were carefully selected as comprising the major causal and impacting factors contributing to success or failure in counter-insurgency, and were settled upon after an exhaustive review of primary and secondary literature relating to counter-insurgency, both historical and doctrinal. The Tri-Partite Model is constructed by three interactive and interdependent factors: the counter-insurgent, the insurgent, and the international political context

Topics: JX, U1
OAI identifier: oai:wrap.warwick.ac.uk:2779

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. (2009). 60 years on Malaya “massacre” by British troops to be investigated‟,
  2. (1990). A Counter-Insurgency Tale: Kitson
  3. (2005). A Critical Look at Britain‟s Spy Machinery: Collection and Analysis
  4. (2006). A Farewell to Arms? Beyond the Good Friday Agreement (2 nd ed) (Manchester:
  5. (2008). A Force for Good? War, Crime and Legitimacy: The British Army
  6. (1962). A Mission to Yemen:
  7. (2008). A Poor Thing But Our Own”:
  8. (1966). A Regular Army in Counter-Insurgency Operations: Egypt in North
  9. (1997). Across the Great Divide: Integrating Comparative and
  10. (1968). Adams, Yemen: The Unknown War (London: Bodley Head,
  11. (1962). Aden Insurgency: The Savage War in South Arabia,
  12. (1985). American Anti-Colonialism and the Dissolution of the British Empire‟, International Affairs,
  13. (2006). An Analysis of Military Operations in Northern Ireland‟. Report prepared under the direction of the Chief of General Staff, Army Code 71842 (Ministry of Defence,
  14. (2005). An Initial Assessment of Post-Conflict Operations‟, Government Response to the Committee‟s Sixth Report of Session 2004-05,
  15. (1969). An Irish War: The IRA‟s Armed Struggle,
  16. (2009). Anatomy of a Surrogate: Historical Precedents and Implications for Contemporary Counter-Insurgency and CounterTerrorism‟, Small Wars and Insurgencies,
  17. (1994). Anglo-American Defence Relations, 1939-84: The Special Relationship (London:
  18. (1974). Arabia Without Sultans (Harmondsworth:
  19. (2004). Armed Struggle: The History of the IRA
  20. (2007). Army and Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field Manual (Chicago:
  21. (1973). At the End of the Day,
  22. (2004). Back to the Street Without Joy: Counterinsurgency Lessons from Vietnam and Other Small Wars‟, Parameters,
  23. (2003). Basra: Crime and Insecurity Under British Occupation‟
  24. (2008). Beatings and abuse made Barack Obama‟s grandfather loathe the British‟,
  25. (2005). Best Practices in Counterinsurgency‟, Military Review (May-June
  26. (1992). Big Boys’ Rules: The SAS and the Secret Struggle Against the IRA (London: Faber and Faber,
  27. (2007). Blair‟s Vietnam: The Iraq War and the „Special Relationship‟
  28. (2002). Body of Secrets: How America’s
  29. (2002). Bribing the Reds to Give Up‟: Rewards Policy in the Malayan Emergency‟, War
  30. (1988). Britain and Decolonisation: The Retreat from Empire in the Post-War World (Basingstoke: Palgrave,
  31. (2004). Britain and the Yemen Civil War – Ministers, Mercenaries and Mandarins: Foreign Policy and the Limits of Covert Action (Brighton:
  32. (2008). Britain in Iraq: it will be all over by
  33. (1991). Britain, Aden and South Arabia: Abandoning
  34. (1982). Britain, the United States and the Cold War
  35. (1986). Britain’s Civil Wars: Counter-Insurgency in the Twentieth
  36. (2005). Britain’s Gulag: The Brutal End of Empire in Kenya (London: Jonathan Cape,
  37. (1995). Britain‟s Abandonment of South Arabia: A Reassessment‟,
  38. (1966). Britain‟s Strategic Problem East of Suez‟,
  39. (2007). British „Post-Conflict‟ Operations in Iraq: Into the Heart of Strategic Darkness‟, Civil Wars,
  40. (2003). British Bulldog or Bush‟s Poodle? Anglo-American Relations and the Iraq War‟, Parameters (Winter
  41. (1992). British Counter-Insurgency and the Mau Mau Rebellion: A Reply‟,
  42. (1992). British Counter-Insurgency and the Mau Mau Rebellion‟,
  43. (2007). British Counter-Insurgency in Afghanistan‟, Defense and Security Analysis,
  44. (1998). British Counter-Insurgency in Kenya, 1952-56: Extension of Internal Security or Prelude to Decolonisation?‟, Small Wars and Insurgencies,
  45. (1995). British Counter-Insurgency in the Post-Imperial Era (Manchester:
  46. (2002). British Counterinsurgency: From Palestine to
  47. (1973). British Defence Policy East of Suez,
  48. (1969). British Government Policy in
  49. (1984). British Imperial Policy and Decolonisation
  50. (1998). British Intelligence and the Anglo-American „Special Relationship‟ During the Cold War‟, Review
  51. (1967). British Military Policy on Arabia: Some Lessons for the Future‟,
  52. (2001). British Policy Towards Northern Ireland, 1969-2000: Continuity, Tactical Adjustment and Consistent „Inconsistencies‟‟,
  53. (2003). British Withdrawal from the Gulf, 1967-71‟,
  54. (1976). Bureaucracy and Incumbent Violence: Colonial Administration and the Origins of the „Mau Mau‟ Emergency in Kenya‟,
  55. (2007). Bush and the War in Iraq‟,
  56. (1942). Business, Government and the End of Empire:
  57. (1965). Central Intelligence Agency, Special Memorandum, Subject: Outlook for Aden and the
  58. (2006). Challenges in Fighting a Global Insurgency‟, Parameters,
  59. (2004). Change and Stability
  60. (2005). Changing the Army for Counterinsurgency Operations‟, Military Review (November/December
  61. (2006). Cobra II: The Inside Story of the Invasion and Occupation of Iraq (London: Atlantic Books,
  62. (1969). Colonialism‟,
  63. (1976). Comparative Politics and the Comparative Method‟, American Political Science Review,
  64. (1991). Comparing Forms of Comparative Analysis‟, Political Studies,
  65. (2004). Conceptualisation of Guerrilla Warfare‟, Small Wars and Insurgencies,
  66. (1984). Constraints on
  67. (1992). Constructing the Colonial Myth of Mau Mau‟,
  68. (2006). Counter-Insurgency and the Global War on Terror: Military Culture and Irregular War
  69. (1967). Counter-Insurgency Campaigning
  70. (2007). Counter-Insurgency from Malaya to Iraq‟,
  71. (2007). Counter-Insurgency Intelligence in a „Long War‟: The British Experience in Northern Ireland‟, Military Review (Jan-Feb
  72. (1969). Counter-Insurgency to Internal Security:
  73. (2006). Countering Evolved Insurgent Networks‟, Military Review (July-August
  74. (1948). Countering Insurgents Through Distributed Operations: Insights from
  75. (1989). Counterinsurgency Paradigms‟, International Security,
  76. (2005). Damned High Wire‟: On the Special Relationship that Unites Bush and Blair in Iraq‟,
  77. (2002). Declassification and Release Policies of the UK‟s Intelligence Agencies‟, Intelligence and National Security,
  78. (1991). Defence Policy and Low Intensity Conflict:
  79. (1953). Department of State, Office of Intelligence Research, „Intelligence Report (No.6307): The Mau Mau – An Aggressive Reaction to Frustration‟,
  80. (2000). Doing Qualitative Research
  81. (2006). Draining the Swamp: The British Strategy of Population Control‟, Parameters,
  82. (2006). Dusty Warriors: Modern Soldiers at War (London: Harper Collins,
  83. (1991). Ethnicity and Modernity: The Paradox of Mau Mau‟,
  84. (1945). Explaining International Relations Since
  85. (2006). Explaining US and British Performance in Complex Expeditionary Operations: The Civil-Military Dimension‟,
  86. (2006). External Assistance: Enable of Insurgent Success‟, Parameters,
  87. (1995). Fighting for Ireland: The Military Strategy of the Irish Republican Movement
  88. (2007). First British soldier to be convicted of war crime is jailed for illtreatment of Iraqi civilians‟,
  89. (1951). Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS)
  90. (1966). From Within: Autobiography and Analysis of Kenya’s Peasant Revolt (London: MacGibbon and Kee,
  91. (1960). Gangs and Counter-Gangs (London: Barrie and Rockcliff,
  92. (2001). General Templer and Counter-Insurgency
  93. (1969). Getting it Wrong: The Crucial Mistakes in the Early Stages of the British Army‟s Deployment to
  94. (1998). Ghost Force: The Secret History of the SAS
  95. (2007). Government “gave public false hopes” on achieving Iraq goals‟,
  96. (1969). Guerrilla Warfare (Harmondsworth: Penguin,
  97. (1996). Guerrilla Warfare: A Historical, Biographical and Bibliographical Sourcebook
  98. (1977). Guerrilla: A Historical and Critical Study (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson,
  99. (1997). Guide to Methods for Students of Political Science
  100. (1948). Hearts and Minds in Guerrilla Warfare: The Malayan Emergency,
  101. (2006). Histories of the Hanged: Britain’s Dirty War
  102. (2006). History, Theory and the Narrative Turn in IR‟,
  103. (2001). How the Weak Win Wars: A Theory of Asymmetric
  104. (2006). http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/1/hi/world/middle_east/6958395.stm BBC Newsnight,
  105. (2003). Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in Iraq‟, The Washington Quarterly,
  106. (1992). Insurgency and Counterinsurgency: Toward a New Analytical Approach‟, Small Wars and Insurgencies,
  107. (1990). Insurgency and Terrorism: Inside Modern Revolutionary Warfare (Dulles,
  108. (1990). Intelligence and Counter-Insurgency
  109. (1999). Intelligence and Counter-Insurgency in the Era of Decolonisation:
  110. (1987). Intelligence and Counter-Insurgency Operations:
  111. (2006). Intensity Operations: Subversion, Insurgency and Peacekeeping (St
  112. (2000). International History and International Relations Theory: A Dialogue Beyond the Cold War‟, International Affairs,
  113. (2007). Iran‟s secret plan for summer offensive to force US out of Iraq‟,
  114. (2006). Iraq: 60 soldiers a month suffer from mental illness‟,
  115. (2003). Iraq: The Military Campaign‟, International Affairs,
  116. (1995). Irish America and the Ulster Conflict,
  117. (1999). Iron Claws on Malaya‟: The Historiography of the Malayan Emergency‟,
  118. (2008). Irregular Warfare: New Challenges for Civil-Military Relations‟, Strategic Forum,
  119. (2007). Is UK Doctrine Relevant to Global Insurgency?‟,
  120. (2008). Issues and Methods in Comparative Politics: An Introduction (3 rd edition)
  121. (1994). Jungle Bashing‟ in Malaya: Towards a Formal Tactical Doctrine‟, Small Wars and Insurgencies,
  122. (1997). Knights in White Armour: The New Art of War and Peace (London: Pimlico,
  123. (1997). Knowledge for Statecraft: The Challenge for Political Science and
  124. (1978). Last Sunset: What Happened in
  125. (2005). Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife: Counterinsurgency Lessons from
  126. (2004). Lewis, The Landscape of History: How Historians Map the Past (Oxford:
  127. London AIR 23 CAB 21; 130 CJ 4 CO 537; 822; 967; 1022; 1027; 1055; 1066
  128. (2007). Mapping Out a Counterinsurgency Campaign Plan: Critical Considerations
  129. (1976). Mau Mau in Nakuru‟,
  130. (1990). Mau Maus of the Mind: Making Mau Mau and Remaking Kenya‟,
  131. (2000). MI6: Inside the Covert World of Her Majesty’s Secret Intelligence Service
  132. (1996). Military Doctrine and Counterinsurgency: A British Perspective‟, Parameters,
  133. (2008). Military Past, Military Present, Military Future: The Usefulness of Military History‟,
  134. (2001). Modern Insurgencies and Counter-Insurgencies: Guerrillas and Their Opponents Since 1750
  135. (2005). Motorman‟s Long Journey: Changing the Strategic Setting in Northern Ireland‟, Contemporary British History,
  136. (2006). My Year in Iraq: The Struggle to Build a Future of Hope (New York: Simon and Schuster,
  137. (2008). Narrative Explanation and International Relations: Back to Basics‟,
  138. (2007). Nasty, Brutish and in Shorts? British Colonial Rule, Violence and the Historians of Mau Mau‟, The Round Table,
  139. (2005). Networks, Terrorism and Global Insurgency
  140. (2006). Newspaper Articles The Guardian, „British tactics reviewed as Basra erupts‟, 8
  141. (2007). Northern Ireland and the British Approach to CounterInsurgency‟, Defense and Security Analysis,
  142. (1988). Northern Ireland: The International Perspective (Dublin: Gill and Macmillan,
  143. (2001). Northern Ireland: The Politics of War and Peace (Basingstoke: Palgrave,
  144. (2007). Occupational Hazards: My Time Governing Iraq (London:
  145. (1977). of Five (London:
  146. (2006). On ‘Other War’: Lessons from Five Decades of RAND Counterinsurgency Research
  147. (1978). On Guerrilla Warfare (trans. Samuel B Griffith
  148. (1997). On Writing International History: Chaps, Maps and Much More‟, International Affairs,
  149. (2006). Online, “Iron fist‟ to tackle Basra woes‟, 31
  150. (2005). Operation Telic and the British Army Campaign of 2003: A Personal View‟, Australian Army Journal,
  151. (2007). Operations in Iraq
  152. (2008). Operations in Iraq 2007‟, Government Response to the Committee‟s First Report of Session 2007-08,
  153. (2005). Patterns of Insurgency and Counterinsurgency‟, Military Review (JulyAugust
  154. (2007). Plague and Paradox:
  155. (2004). Precarious Conditions: A Note on Counter-Insurgency
  156. (2006). Principles, Imperatives and Paradoxes of Counterinsurgency‟, Military Review (March-April
  157. (1998). Provos: The IRA and
  158. (2005). Pseudo Operations and Counter-Insurgency: Lessons from Other Countries‟
  159. (2004). Pursuing Nasser: The Macmillan Government and the
  160. (1994). Re-enter the SAS: The Special Air Service and the Malayan Emergency (London: Leo Cooper,
  161. (1996). Rebel Hearts: Journeys Within the IRA’s Soul (London: Picador,
  162. (2006). Redux‟, Survival,
  163. (2006). Report says Iraq insurgents are financially self-sufficient‟,
  164. (1969). Repression and the Liberal State: The Case of
  165. (1993). Researching Social Life (London: Sage,
  166. (1971). Revolutionary Guerrilla Warfare and the Decolonisation Movement‟, Polity,
  167. (1974). Revolutionary Guerrilla Warfare: The Countryside Version (Harmondsworth:
  168. (2007). Saudi‟s make up 41% of foreign fighters
  169. (2008). Secret deal kept Army out of battle for Basra‟,
  170. (2005). Security Committee „The Handling of Detainees by UK Intelligence Personnel
  171. (1997). Seven Pillars of Wisdom (Hertfordshire: Wordsworth,
  172. (1968). Shades of Amber: A South Arabian Episode
  173. (1983). Shifting Sands: The British in South Arabia (London: Peninsular Publishing,
  174. (2007). Sir John, „Learning About Counterinsurgency‟, Military Review (March-April
  175. (1994). Sir Peter de la, Looking for Trouble: SAS to Gulf Command (London: Harper Collins,
  176. (2008). Six days on the sidelines left Britain facing wrath of allies‟, 5
  177. (2004). Social Research Methods (2 nd ed) (Oxford:
  178. (2001). Soldiers in Cities: Military Operations on Urban Terrain‟
  179. (2007). Sources and Methods in the Study of Intelligence: A British View‟,
  180. (2008). Soviet Support for Egypt‟s Intervention in Yemen, 1962-1963‟,
  181. (2006). Stability Operations in Iraq: An Analysis from a Land Perspective‟. Report prepared under the direction of the Chief of General Staff, Army Code 71844 (Ministry of Defence,
  182. (2006). State of Denial (London: Simon and Schuster,
  183. (1962). State of Emergency: The Full Story of Mau
  184. (2005). State-Building in Southern Iraq‟,
  185. (2006). Strategic Aspects of Counterinsurgency‟, Military Review (March/April
  186. (2006). Succeeding in Phase IV: British Perspectives on the US Effort to Stabilize and Reconstruct Iraq‟, (Foreign Policy Research Institute:
  187. (1988). Suez Revisited‟, International Affairs,
  188. (1948). Suppressing Insurgency: An Analysis of the Malayan Emergency,
  189. (2005). Sustainability of UK Forces
  190. (1985). Templer: Tiger of
  191. (2007). Ten Ways to Lose at Counterinsurgency‟, Civil Wars,
  192. (1979). Ten Years of British Troops
  193. (1979). Term: The Labour Government 1974-1976 (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson,
  194. (2005). The Art of Counter-Revolutionary Warfare (St
  195. (1998). The Art of Insurgency:
  196. (2004). The British Army and the Origins of its Minimum Force Philosophy‟, Small Wars and Insurgencies,
  197. (1997). The British Army in Northern Ireland, 1969-1972: From Policing to Counter-Terror‟,
  198. (2007). The Calm Before the Storm: The British Experience in
  199. (1981). The Causes of Terrorism‟,
  200. (2003). The Civil-Military „Gap‟ in Britain‟,
  201. (2002). The Clandestine Defence of Empire: British Special Operations
  202. (2006). The Cold War “Special Relationship” Revisited‟, Diplomacy and Statecraft,
  203. (1994). The Cold War (London: Vintage,
  204. (1948). The Communist Insurrection in Malaya,
  205. (1998). The Course of My Life: The Autobiography of Edward Heath (London: Hodder and
  206. (2006). The Craft of International History: A Guide to Method
  207. (2007). The Cultural Revolution in Counter-Insurgency‟,
  208. (1991). The Dirty War
  209. (2008). The Dynamics of British Military Transformation‟, International Affairs,
  210. (1999). The End of Empire and the Making of Malaya (Cambridge:
  211. (1991). The End of Empire in the Middle East: Britain’s Relinquishment of Power in Her Last Three Arab Dependencies (Cambridge:
  212. (2006). The Gamble: General David Petraeus and the American Military Adventure in Iraq,
  213. (2005). The Global Cold War: Third World Interventions and the Making of Our Times (Cambridge:
  214. (1978). The Guerrilla Reader: A Historical Anthology (London: Wildwood House,
  215. (2002). The Hidden Hand: Britain, America and Cold War Secret Intelligence
  216. (1962). The Hunt for Kimathi
  217. (2006). The Independent on Sunday, „Operation Sinbad: Mission failure casts doubt on entire British presence in Iraq‟,
  218. (2006). The Independent, „Made in Palestine: Iraq‟s suicide bombers‟, 6
  219. (1999). The Intellectual Internment of a Conflict: The Forgotten War
  220. (1995). The IRA (4 th ed) (London: Harper Collins,
  221. (2004). The Iraq War
  222. (2000). The Irish War: The Military History of a Domestic Conflict (London: Harper Collins,
  223. (1971). The Labour Government, 1964-70: A Personal Record (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson,
  224. (2006). The Lessons of Abadan and Suez for British Foreign Policymakers in the 1960s‟, The Historical Journal,
  225. (2006). The Long Small War: Indigenous Forces for Counterinsurgency‟, Parameters,
  226. (1948). The Long, Long War: The Emergency in Malaya,
  227. (1962). The Memoirs of Lord Chandos (London: The Bodley Head,
  228. (1990). The Myth of Mau Mau
  229. (2003). The Myth of Ulsterisation
  230. (1970). The New Strategy of the IRA‟,
  231. (2006). The Nine Principles of Combined Arms Action in a Counterinsurgency Environment‟, Military Review (March-April
  232. (1966). The Non-Lessons of the Malayan Emergency‟, Asian Survey,
  233. (2006). The Object Beyond War: Counterinsurgency and the Four Tools of Political Competition‟, Military Review (January/February
  234. (2007). The Occupation of Iraq: Winning the War, Losing the Peace (New Haven and London:
  235. (1990). The Origins of British Counter-Insurgency‟, Small Wars and Insurgencies,
  236. (1985). The Origins of Mau Mau‟, African Affairs,
  237. (2007). The Other Side of the COIN: Minimum and Exemplary Force
  238. (2007). The Phoenix of Counterinsurgency‟,
  239. (1991). The Production of History in Kenya: The Mau Mau Debate‟,
  240. (1960). The Professional Soldier: A Social and Political Portrait
  241. (2006). The Provisional IRA in England: The Bombing Campaign 1973-1997
  242. (2008). The Real Cold War Was Hot: The Global Struggle for the Third World‟, Intelligence and National Security,
  243. (2005). The Role and Effectiveness of Intelligence
  244. (1983). The Role of External Forces in Third World Conflict‟, Comparative Strategy,
  245. (1997). The RUC, 1922-1997: A Force Under Fire (Revised edition)
  246. (1947). The SAS: Savage Wars of Peace,
  247. (1989). The Secret Army: The IRA, 1916-1979 (Revised Edition)
  248. (2004). The Sling and the Stone: On War
  249. (1957). The Soldier and the State: The Theory and Practice of CivilMilitary Relations
  250. (2006). The Strategic Limits of Suicide Terrorism
  251. (2000). The Struggle for Rehabilitation in Late Colonial Kenya‟,
  252. (1984). The Struggle for South Yemen (Beckenham: Croom Helm,
  253. (1990). The Study of Counter-Insurgency: A British Perspective‟,
  254. (2007). The Sunday Times News Review,
  255. (2007). The Sunday Times,
  256. (2007). The Sunday Times, “Run out of town‟: how we got it wrong‟,
  257. (2007). The Sunday Times, „I felt a new terror on Basra‟s streets‟,
  258. (2007). The Sunday Times, „US tells generals to „lay off‟ Britain as Mahdi Army claims it forced Basra truce‟, 9
  259. (2006). The Superpower Quest for Empire: The Cold War and Soviet Support for “Wars of National Liberation”‟, Cold War History,
  260. (2003). The Terminology of Terrorism: Malaya, 1948-52‟,
  261. (1990). The Time of My Life
  262. (2007). The Times, „British hostages held by “Iran-backed” killers‟,
  263. (1972). The United Nations and Decolonisation: the Case of
  264. (2006). The Utility of Force: The Art of War in the Modern World (London:
  265. (1969). The Vietnam Negotiations‟, Foreign Affairs
  266. (2002). The War Against the IRA (London: Bloomsbury,
  267. (1971). The War in the Yemen
  268. (1970). The War of the Flea: Guerrilla Warfare in Theory and Practice (St Albans: Paladin,
  269. (1948). The War of the Running Dogs:
  270. (1989). The Whitelaw Memoirs (London:
  271. (2003). Theory and History
  272. (2009). Third Generation Civil-Military Relations and the “New Revolution in Military Affairs”‟, Danish Institute for International Studies working paper,
  273. (1997). Too Important to Leave to the Other: History and
  274. (2007). Torture, Rights, Rules and Wars: Ireland to Iraq‟, International Relations,
  275. (1996). Traditional Religion and Guerrilla Warfare in Modern Africa
  276. (2006). Training Indigenous Security Forces at the Upper End of the Counterinsurgency Spectrum‟, Military Review (November/December
  277. (2001). Transmogrifying‟ Malaya: The Impact of Sir Gerald Templer (1952-54)‟,
  278. (2006). Twenty-Eight Articles: Fundamentals of Company-Level CounterInsurgency‟, Military Review,
  279. (1995). Two Faces of 1950s Terrorism: The Film Representation of Mau Mau and the Malayan Emergency‟, Small Wars and Insurgencies,
  280. (2006). UK Operations in Iraq‟, Government Response to the Committee‟s Thirteenth Report of Session 2005-06,
  281. (1973). Ulster is an International Issue‟, Foreign Policy,
  282. (1993). Unconventional Conflicts in a New Security Era: Lessons from Malaya and Vietnam
  283. (2007). Under cover of darkness, British troops pull out of their last base in Basra city‟,
  284. (1994). Understanding Documents and Sources
  285. (2001). Unfortunate Arabia:‟ The United States,
  286. (2003). Urban Insurgency‟, Small Wars and Insurgencies,
  287. (2007). US accuses highest levels in Iran of supplying deadly weapons to Iraqi insurgents‟,
  288. (1982). Vietnam and the American Theory of Limited War‟,
  289. (1970). Walking a Real Tight-Rope of Difficulties‟: Sir Edward Heath and the Search for Stability in
  290. (1987). What is History? (2 nd ed)
  291. (2002). What‟s in a Name? How to Fight Terrorism‟, Foreign Affairs,
  292. (2006). Where the State Feared to Tread:‟ Britain, Britons, Covert Action and Civil
  293. (1975). Why Big Nations Lose Small Wars‟, World Politics,
  294. (1991). Why Political Science Needs History‟, Political Studies,
  295. (1944). Winning Hearts and Minds: British Governments, the Media and Colonial Counter-Insurgency,
  296. (1999). Winning in Malaya: An Intelligence Success Story‟, Intelligence and National Security,
  297. (2003). Winning the „War on Terror‟? Roy Mason‟s Contribution to Counter-Terrorism
  298. (2006). Without Glory in Arabia: The British Retreat from Aden (London: IB Tauris,
  299. (2006). Working with Allies: The United States,

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.