Background\ud Emotional abuse (or psychological maltreatment, as it is more commonly called in the US) is an inadequately researched and poorly understood concept, despite increasing awareness about the harm it can cause to children‟s lives. Although it unifies and underpins all types of maltreatment it also occurs alone and when it does, tends to elude detection and intervention. There have to date been no systematic reviews of the literature on the secondary prevention and treatment involving the parents or primary carers of emotionally abused children.\ud Objective\ud The objective of the review was to identify studies that evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in the secondary prevention and treatment of child emotional abuse involving the parents or primary carers of children aged 0 – 19 years.\ud Methods\ud Studies were included if they involved any intervention which was directed at emotionally abusive parenting and that measured change in (i) emotional unavailability (ii) negative attributions (i.e. that involve the parent attributing negative intentions, beliefs or attitudes toward the child); (iii) developmentally inappropriate interactions; (iv) lack of recognition of children‟s boundaries; (v) inconsistency of parenting role; (vi) missocialisation or consistent failure to promote the child‟s social adaptation. The primary outcomes evaluated involved proxy measures of a range of parent, family and child outcomes including parental psychopathology, parenting attitudes and practices, family functioning and/or child behaviour and the child‟s development and adaptation.\ud .\ud A broad search strategy was developed in order to identify as many relevant studies as possible. An electronic search of a wide range of databases was carried about. No study type was excluded. The search was augmented by direct contact with academics and practitioners known in this field. The search included studies written in English, Spanish, French and German. Studies were included if the intervention was described, and the impact on at least one indicator of emotional abuse was assessed. Included \ud studies were critically appraised by two reviewers using standard criteria. Data were extracted using a standard proforma, and a qualitative synthesis of results was carried out.\ud Results\ud The initial search yielded 4248 publications of potential interest. Of these, 175 were obtained for possible inclusion or as background material. A total of 21 studies of 18 interventions, met all the inclusion criteria. A further 43 studies were relevant, but did not meet all of the inclusion criteria. Studies were organised according to the type of emotional abuse targeted: emotionally abusive parenting; parents of infants with faltering growth; missocialisation: parenting interventions with substance-abusing mothers. Twelve included studies had quantitative designs. Of these, 6 comprised randomised controlled trials; 1 comprised a follow-up of a randomised controlled trial; 2 were controlled studies; and 3 had one-group pre- and post-designs. The remaining 9 were case studies.\ud Included studies involved a wide range of interventions. The 8 studies for parents which address emotionally abusive parenting (rejection, misattribution, parent-child role reversal and anger management) involved evaluations of cognitive-behavioural training (CBT), behavioural training and parent-infant psychotherapy. Two further case studies involved cognitive-behavioural training, mentalisation and family-based therapy. The 9 interventions with parents of infants with faltering growth evaluated CBT, behavioural training, parent infant psychotherapy and interaction guidance; lay home visitors, and a range of therapeutic options based on the diagnostic condition of the parents. The 3 studies of interventions for substance abusing mothers evaluated a relational psychotherapy group for mothers, and a residential treatment for substance abuse with a parenting component. The sample sizes for quantitative studies were small and ranged from 17 to 98 participants. Ten interventions involved mothers alone, while a further 11 included fathers, either at the outset or at a later stage, and in 3 cases extended family members.\ud Interventions for emotionally abusing parents\ud The findings from the 8 included studies evaluating CBT, psychotherapy, and behavioural approaches suggest that group-based CBT may be an effective means of intervening with this group of parents, although it cannot currently be recommended with parents experiencing symptoms of severe psychopathology. While one comparative study showed a psychotherapeutic intervention to be more effective than a CBT focused intervention, the outcomes measured in this study (i.e. parent and child representations) favoured the former. Behavioural case work involving the use of problem-solving techniques may also have a role to play with some parents, although further research is still needed.\ud Interventions to enhance parental sensitivity\ud The findings from a systematic review of 81 interventions that aimed at enhancing parental sensitivity and / or infant attachment found strong evidence that short term (less than 16 sessions) interventions, with a behavioural focus and aimed exclusively at enhancing maternal sensitivity were also most effective in enhancing infant attachment security. This supports the notion of a causal role of sensitivity in shaping attachment. Interventions that included fathers as well as mothers showed higher effect sizes but results are tentative since they are based on a small number of small scale trials.\ud Parental behaviours associated with faltering growth\ud Nine studies evaluated a range of interventions with parents of babies with faltering growth including interaction guidance, home visiting; parent-child psychotherapy, behavioural casework and multi-component interventions. The findings show that interaction guidance and parent-infant psychotherapy may be potentially effective means of working with this group of clients along with behavioural casework, but that further research is needed before these can be recommended.\ud Missocialisation: Parenting interventions for substance-abusing parents\ud 5 studies (one of which was a 6-month follow-up) evaluated interventions for substance abusing mothers, including a relational psychotherapy group and a residential treatment for substance abusing adults with a parenting component. The findings show that initial gains made in the former were not sustained at 6-months and few benefits from residential intervention.\ud Conclusions\ud Emotional abuse is a complex issue resulting in part from learned behaviours, psychopathology and/or unmet emotional needs in the parents, and often compounded by factors in the families‟ immediate and wider social environment. As such, a „one-approach-fits-all‟ is unlikely to lead to sustained change.\ud The evidence base is weak, but suggests that some caregivers respond well to cognitive behavioural therapy. However, the characteristics that define these parents are not clear. There is currently no evidence to support the use of this intervention alone in the treatment of severely emotionally abusive parents. Some of the evidence suggests that a certain form of emotional abuse (for example, highly negative parent affect, which may be expressed as frightened and frightening behaviours in the parent) stemming from unresolved trauma and loss, is less amenable to CBT. There is some evidence that interaction guidance and psychotherapeutic approaches can generate change in parents with more severe psychopathology.\ud Further research is urgently needed to evaluate the benefits of both psychotherapeutic and cognitive behavioural interventions, including those which take the form of family therapy, with parents at the more severe end of the spectrum, with fathers, and with older children. There is also a need to gain further understanding about which forms of emotional abuse respond best to different treatments
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