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A food security approach to marine protected area impacts on surrounding fishing communities: the case of Kisite Marine National Park in Kenya

By Delphine Malleret-King

Abstract

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have been suggested as one of the solutions to coral reef fisheries management. It is thought that their effects on biomass, species diversity and habitat could improve surrounding fisheries yields through fish migration and increased recruitment. However, MPAs' benefits on surrounding fisheries are difficult to establish due to the lack of historical data. Furthermore, the lack of involvement of stakeholders have led to a number of failures. MPAs in the form of No Take Zones (NTZ), which aim to promote the sustainable use of fisheries resources, might contribute to the successful management of coral reef fisheries. However, few studies have considered their benefits from the point of view of surrounding fishing communities. It is evident that if stakeholders are to be further involved in MPA management, they need to perceive the benefits.\ud \ud The hypothesis tested was that if NTZs are of benefit to surrounding communities, their food security situation would be improved. The fieldwork was carried out in Southern Kenya with five fishing communities located around a long established MPA. The study showed that a range of food security indicators gave good information on MPAs' benefits to the surrounding communities. It was found that these benefits were highly affected by distances. Thus, although fishing households were the least food secure, they were better off if they fished nearer the protected reefs. Households dependent on MPA-related tourism were the most food secure but this dependency decreased with the communities' distance from the main tour operators. The results showed that MPAs' benefits were not equally shared by the communities bearing most of the costs.\ud \ud In addition, it was also found that tourism seasonality does not always compensate for the seasonality of other activities. Furthermore, tourism could not be assumed to develop around MPAs and provide reliable alternative employment

Topics: SH, HD
OAI identifier: oai:wrap.warwick.ac.uk:2923

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