Location of Repository

A food security approach to marine protected area impacts on surrounding fishing communities: the case of Kisite Marine National Park in Kenya

By Delphine Malleret-King


Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have been suggested as one of the solutions to coral reef fisheries management. It is thought that their effects on biomass, species diversity and habitat could improve surrounding fisheries yields through fish migration and increased recruitment. However, MPAs' benefits on surrounding fisheries are difficult to establish due to the lack of historical data. Furthermore, the lack of involvement of stakeholders have led to a number of failures. MPAs in the form of No Take Zones (NTZ), which aim to promote the sustainable use of fisheries resources, might contribute to the successful management of coral reef fisheries. However, few studies have considered their benefits from the point of view of surrounding fishing communities. It is evident that if stakeholders are to be further involved in MPA management, they need to perceive the benefits.\ud \ud The hypothesis tested was that if NTZs are of benefit to surrounding communities, their food security situation would be improved. The fieldwork was carried out in Southern Kenya with five fishing communities located around a long established MPA. The study showed that a range of food security indicators gave good information on MPAs' benefits to the surrounding communities. It was found that these benefits were highly affected by distances. Thus, although fishing households were the least food secure, they were better off if they fished nearer the protected reefs. Households dependent on MPA-related tourism were the most food secure but this dependency decreased with the communities' distance from the main tour operators. The results showed that MPAs' benefits were not equally shared by the communities bearing most of the costs.\ud \ud In addition, it was also found that tourism seasonality does not always compensate for the seasonality of other activities. Furthermore, tourism could not be assumed to develop around MPAs and provide reliable alternative employment

Topics: SH, HD
OAI identifier: oai:wrap.warwick.ac.uk:2923

Suggested articles



  1. (1995). (Re) inventing ground rules: inheritance of land among the Digo of southern Kenya. Thesis for a Masters of Arts,
  2. (1997). 25th Anniversary invited paper- Trends in development of coastal area management in tropical countries: from central to community orientation.
  3. (1994). 4 guide for participatory rural appraisal of coastal communities.
  4. (1993). A
  5. (1995). A brief history of participatory methodologies.
  6. (1997). A charter for food security.
  7. (1992). A framework of rapid appraisal for coastal environments.
  8. (1986). A Manual of Rapid Appraisal Techniques for Philippines Coastal Fisheries: Problem Solving and Project Identification. Research division, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources,
  9. (1993). A manual on rapid appraisal methods for coastal communities. Bay of Bengal Programme.
  10. (1986). A method for measuring food poverty applied to Kenya.
  11. (1975). A precolonial history of the Southern coast of Kenya. PhD thesis.
  12. (1997). A rapid appraisal approach to evaluation of community-level fisheries management systems: framework and field application at selected coastal villages in the Philippines and Indonesia.
  13. (1979). A research framework for traditional fisheries.
  14. (1989). A sea of small boats: Customary law and territoriality in the world of inshore fishing. Cultural surviva.
  15. (1988). A village level approach to coastal adaptive management and resource assessment CAMRA.
  16. (1988). Abundance and species richness of coral reef fish on the Kenya coast: The effects of protective management and fishing.
  17. (1985). Action plan for the protection, management, and development of the marine and coastal environment of the East African region.
  18. (1991). Action research: the application of Rapid Rural Appraisal to learn about issues of concern in landcare areas near Wagga Wagga,
  19. (1993). Adaptation in stochastic Environments.
  20. (1985). Adding a food consumption perspective to farming system research. Report prepared for USDA,
  21. (1986). African food crisis: looking beyond the emergency.
  22. (1996). Agency, well-being and inequality: reflections on gender dimensions of poverty.
  23. (1992). Agenda 21, chapter 17.
  24. (1996). An analysis of the benefits and costs of marine reserve regulations at Diani, Kenya. The socio-economic context of a resource conflict between communities and wildlife authorities. Dissertation for a Msc,
  25. (1977). An epitaph for the concept of maximum sustainable yield.
  26. (1991). An Introduction to Marine Ecology. 2nd edition.
  27. (1993). Applications of marine refugia to coastal fisheries management.
  28. (1993). Are coping strategies a cop out?
  29. (1991). Are marine reserves effective in management of reef fisheries?
  30. (1985). Assessment and management of coral reef fisheries: biological, environment and socio-economic aspects.
  31. (1996). Beyond the concept of sustainable yield.
  32. (1992). Biodiversity conservation, affluence and poverty: mismatched costs and benefits and efforts to remedy them.
  33. (1997). Building better social impact assessments.
  34. (1991). But how does it compare to REAL data 7
  35. (1983). Caribbean Coral Reefs Fishery Resources.
  36. (1992). Caribbean small-island tourism styles and sustainable strategies.
  37. (1994). Catastrophes, phase shifts and large-scale degradation of a Caribbean coral reef..
  38. (1996). Catch rates, selectivity and yields of reef fishing. In Reef Fisheries, Ist edn,
  39. (1990). Causes and consequences of sea urchin abundance and diversity in Kenyan coral reef laggons.
  40. (1997). Challenges to community-based sustainable development: dynamics, entitlements, institutions.
  41. (1993). Challenging the Professions: Frontiers for rural development.
  42. (1994). Change in Marine Communities: An Approach to Statistical Analysis and Interpretation.
  43. (1988). Changes in Kenyan coral reef community structure due to exploitation.
  44. (1994). Choice of indicator for food security and nutrition monitoring.
  45. (1994). Collaborative and Community-Based Management of Coral Reefs, Lessons from Experience.
  46. (1996). Common in custom, uncommon in advantage: common property, local elites and alternative approaches to fisheries management.
  47. COMMUNICATIONS Diani Fisheries Officers Fisheries Officers at the time (1996): Mr Beja and Mr.
  48. (1994). Community involvement in coral reef monitoring for management in the insular Caribbean, 59-97. In Collaborative and Community-Based Management of Coral Reefs, Lessons from Experience. Edited by
  49. (1997). Community-based coral reef conservaion in the Bay Islands of Honduras.
  50. (1994). Community-based coral reefs and fisheries management,
  51. (1996). Concepts and issues in marine ecosystem management.
  52. (1993). Conceptual Issues Relevant to Marine Harvest Refuges: Examples from Temperate Reef Fishes.
  53. (1987). Conservation in isular parks: simulation models of factors affecting the movement of animals across park boundaries.
  54. (1998). Conservation of Biological Resources. 1st edn.
  55. (1998). Consideration of customary marine tenure system in the establishment of marine protected areas in the South Pacific.
  56. (1994). Contingent valuation and biodiversity: measuring the user surplus of Kenyan protected areas.
  57. (1996). Control of trade by multinationals: impact of the Uruguay Round of GATT on sustainable food security. IATP, unpublished document.
  58. (1988). Coping with the market: uncertainty and food security among Hausa peasants. In Coping with uncertainty in food supply,
  59. (1996). Coping with the transition: household coping strategies in KyrgystanSave the Children Fund, Working Paper 15.48p.
  60. (1978). Coral reef area and the contribution of reefs to processes and resources of the world's oceans.
  61. (1998). Coral Reef Degradation as a Result of Human Activities. USA: UWO. See http: //slis.
  62. (1991). Coral reef fisheries: effects and yields.
  63. (1992). Coral reefs of the world are facing widespread devastation: can we prevent this through sustainable management practices?
  64. (1992). Coral reefs valuable but vulnerable.
  65. (1993). Coral reefs: health, hazards and history.
  66. (1993). Criteria for trustworthiness: a note for the joint IIED/IDS workshop on alternatives to questionnaire surveys.
  67. (1994). Critical Issues in Tourism. A Geographical Perspective.
  68. (1996). Do marine reserves export adult fish biomass? Evidence from Apo Island, Central Philippines. Marine Ecology Progress Series.
  69. (1997). Ecological advice for the global fisheries crisis.
  70. (1981). Ecological and environmental Indicators for the RA of NR".
  71. (1993). Economic benefits of marine protected areas.
  72. (1997). Economic Survey. Nairobi: Central Bureau of Statistics.
  73. (1990). Economics of Protected Areas- A New Look at Benefits and Costs. Ist edn. East West Center:
  74. (1991). Economics of protected areas.
  75. (1992). ECOPATH II -A system for balancing steady-state models and calculating network characteristics.
  76. (1999). Ecotourism without tears.
  77. (1994). Ecotourism: A Sustainable Option?
  78. (1989). Editorial introduction: vulnerability, coping and pol icy.
  79. (1996). Effect of a marine reserve on the distribution of coral reef fishes in Barbados.
  80. (1988). Effects of fishing on reef fish communities at Pedro Bank and Port Royal cays,
  81. (1988). Effects of marine reserves on coral fish abundances and yields of Philippine coral reefs.
  82. (1997). Effects of marine reserves on coral reef fish communities from five islands in New Caledonia.
  83. (1987). Effects of patch reef size and isolation on coral reef fish recruitment.
  84. (1985). Effects of protective management on coral reef fishes in the central Philippines.
  85. (1993). Effects of recreational scuba diving on coral reefs: trampling on reef-flat communities.
  86. (1992). Effects of recreational SCUBA diving on forereef slope communities of coral reefs.
  87. (1996). Empires of the Monsoon. A history of the Indian Ocean and its invaders. Ist edn.
  88. (1995). Enforcement in marine protected areas. In Marine Protected Areas: principles and techniques, 1st edn, pp 119-148. Edited by Gubbay, S. London: Chapman et Hall.
  89. (1988). Entitlements, availability and famine: a revisionist view of Woll 1972-1974.
  90. (1997). Environmental and Social Impact Assessment: An Introduction.
  91. (1988). Environmental, economic and social costs of coral reef destruction in the Philippines.
  92. (1990). European community and Food Security.
  93. (1998). Evaluating Management of Protected Areas: Integrating Planning and Evaluation.
  94. (1987). Experiences of the collection and used of micro-level data in disaster preparedness and managing emergency operations. Mimeo. Report on the workshop held at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medecine. London: Relief and Development Institute.
  95. (1988). Famine and coping strategies.
  96. (1989). Famine that kills: Darfur,
  97. (1994). Financing strategies for protected areas in the insular Caribbean.
  98. (1999). Financing the management of Kisite Marine National Park and Mpunguti Marine National Reserve, Kenya, through partnership with stakeholders. East Africa:
  99. (1998). Financing the management of marine protected areas in partnership with the private sector. In Partnerships for Conservation:
  100. (1990). Fish yields of Kilifi coral reef in Kenya. Hydrobiologia
  101. (1985). Fisheries and undernutrition.
  102. (1997). Fisheries Director Assistant Director Fisheries, Fisheries Departement, Mombasa. At the time
  103. (1996). Fisheries management: what chance on the coral reefs?
  104. (1985). Fishermen and the `tragedy of the commons'.
  105. (1997). Fishers, Parks and Power: The socio-environmental dimensions of marine resource decline and protection on the Kenyan coast. PhD Thesis.
  106. (1985). Fleet dynamics and individual variation: why some people catch more fish than others.
  107. (1993). Food insecurity in Mali: exploring the role of the moral economy.
  108. (1991). Food insecurity: a nutritional outcome or a predictor variable?
  109. (1994). Food security and nutrition monitoring- A conceptual framework, issues and challenges.
  110. (1991). Food security and the environment: conflict or complementarity7 IDS Discussion paper 285.
  111. (1991). Food security and the environment.
  112. (1990). Food security, coping strategies and environmental degradation.
  113. (1998). Foreword. In Whose Voice? Participatory research and policy change, Ist edn, ppxv-xviii. Edited by
  114. (1989). Fourth Generation Evaluation.
  115. (1991). Gender Issues in Rural Household Economy".
  116. (1991). Gender, production and well-being: re-thinking the household economy. IDS Discussion paper 288.
  117. (1995). Global and regional food demand and supply prospects.
  118. (1994). Global climate change and coral reefs: implications for people and reefs.
  119. (1993). Goats before ploughs: dilemmas of household response sequencing during food shortages.
  120. (1993). Greater biomass and value of target coral-reef fishes in two small Caribbean marine reserves. Marine Ecology Progress Series.
  121. (1996). Growth of agricultural production is slowing despite the large number of undernourished people.
  122. (1992). Guidelines for Establishing Marine Protected Areas.
  123. (1994). Guidelines for Protected Area Management Categories,
  124. (1991). Harvesting local forestry knowledge: a comparison of RRA and conventional surveys,
  125. (1990). Harvesting local forestry knowledge: a field test evaluation of rapid rural appraisal techniques for social forestry project analysis.
  126. (1996). Have tropical Marine Protected Areas worked? An initial analysis of their success.
  127. (1990). Household food security and the role of women. World Bank Discussion Paper 96. The World Bank,
  128. (1986). Household food security in response to seasonality and famine.
  129. (1992). Household Food Security: Concepts, indicators, Measurements: A technical Review. lrst edn. UNICEF/I FAD,
  130. (1989). Hunger and Public Action.
  131. (1989). Impact of human trampling in different zones of coral reef flat.
  132. (1998). Implementing the precautionary principle in fisheries management through marine reserves. Ecological Applications.
  133. (1995). In Power, Process and Participation - Tools for Change -, Ist edn,
  134. (1989). Indicators for Measuring Changes in Income, Food Avalibility, Consumption, and the Natural Resource Base.
  135. (1991). Indigenous technical knowledge and natural resources management in sub-Saharan Africa: a critical overview. Chatham: Natural Resources Institute.
  136. (1991). Institutional challenges for community-based management in the Caribbean.
  137. (1998). Integrated coastal zone and fisheries ecosystem management: generic goals and performance indices.
  138. (1989). Integrated fisheries management models: understanding the limits to marine resource exploitation.
  139. (1993). International development in marine conservation and the World Conservation Union marine agenda.
  140. (1997). Introduction to hosts and guests: the anthropology of tourism.
  141. (1995). Involving the community.
  142. (1999). Is cultural tourism on the right track?
  143. (1995). Kenya Poverty Assessment. Population and Human Resource Development, EastAfrican Department, Africa Region.
  144. (1994). Kenyan coral reef lagoon fish: effects of fishing, substrate complexity, and sea urchins.
  145. (1994). KWALE District development plan 1994-1996. Nairobi: Rural Planning Department.
  146. (1996). La croissance des rendements: role et enjeux pour la recherche agricole. Technical paper for the WFS,
  147. (1995). La Parguera Marine Fishery Reserve: involving the fishing community in planning a marine protected area. Caribbean Park and Protected Area
  148. (1979). Landscapes of Fear. Ist edn.
  149. (1984). Large scale spatial and temporal variation in recruitment to fish populations on coral reefs.
  150. (1990). Le Kenya. 1st edn.
  151. (1983). Le Kenya. Que sail je?.
  152. (1995). Legislative requirements. In Marine Protected Areas: principles and techniques, Ist edn, pp 32-60. Edited by Gubbay, S. London: Chapman et Hall.
  153. (1989). Les Peches et les cultures marines face ä la rarete de la ressource. In L' Homme et les Ressources Halieutiques, Essai sur 1'usage d'une ressource renouvelable , Ist edn, pp 21-67. Edited by Troadec,
  154. (1996). Les systemes de productions des agriculteurs pecheurs de Biga, petite communaute de pecheurs.
  155. (1991). Lesson in upland farmer participation: the case of enriched fallow technology in
  156. (1988). Logging versus Fisheries and tourism in Palawan: an environmental and economic analysis. East West environment and
  157. (1996). Management of traditional fishing grounds: the experience of the Para community,
  158. (1998). Managing marine protected areas in partnership with communities. In Partnerships for Conservation:
  159. (1984). Marine and Coastal Protected Areas: A Guide for Planners.
  160. (1995). Marine protected areas - past, present and future.
  161. (1997). Marine protected areas and biosphere reserves: `towards a new paradigm'.
  162. (1995). Marine protected areas in Britain: a conceptual problem?.
  163. (1998). Marine protected areas: changes and challenges. In Partnerships for Conservation:
  164. (1996). Marine protected areas: emerging economics.
  165. (1991). Marine reserve management in Developing Nations: Mida Creek- A case study from East Africa.
  166. (1996). Marine Reserves and the Precautionary Management of Fisheries.
  167. (1998). Marine reserves are necessary but not sufficient for marine conservation.
  168. (1996). Marine reserves for fisheries management.
  169. (1998). Marine reserves in New Zealand: use rights, public attitudes, and social impacts.
  170. (1996). Marine reserves: rates and patterns of recovery and decline of large predatory fish.
  171. (1996). Marine sanctuaries and conservation of fishery resources.
  172. (1999). Masters in their own tepees. UNESCO-The Courrier July/August,
  173. (1990). Mathematical Bioeconomics: The Optimal Management of Renewable Resources, 2nd Ed.
  174. (1999). MCS campaign for No Take Zones in UK waters.
  175. (1996). Measuring food insecurity: the frequency and severity of "coping strategies".
  176. (1990). Measuring food security in Africa: conceptual, empirical, and policy issues.
  177. (1995). Measuring household food security: a participatory process approach.
  178. (1995). Methods for Development Work and Research. A Guide for Practitioners. London: SAGE publications.
  179. (1995). Methods used to study household coping strategies in rural South West Uganda. Health Policy and Planning
  180. (1984). Model for a coral reef ecosystem: Part 1. The ECOPATH model and its application to the French frigate shoals.
  181. (1993). Modeling the potential fishery reserves for managing Pacific reef fishes.
  182. (1994). Monitoring food security and coping strategies, lessons learnt form the SADS Project,
  183. Mpunguti Marine National Park and Reserve Warden 1996/1997. At the time (1997): Mr Odeny.
  184. (1998). National perspective of marine protected area management in Kenya. In Partnerships for Conservation:
  185. (1994). Net loss: fish, jobs and the marine environment. Worldwatch paper. (120). Washington DC:
  186. (2000). No-take zones: a management context. In The Effects of Fishing on Non-target Species and Habitats.
  187. (1996). Non farm employment in rural Kenya: micro-mechanisms influencing food and nutrition of farming households.
  188. (1957). Notes on the dorade or dolphin-fish (Coryphaena hippurus) in East African waters.
  189. (1900). Notes on the history of Vumba. East Africa.
  190. (1992). Nutrition and Development: .4 Global Assessment.
  191. (1988). Nutrition assessment through the use of a nutritional scoring system".
  192. (1991). Nutrition Surveillance Workshop,
  193. (1988). Nutritional status as an Indicator of impending Food Stress.
  194. (1984). Nutritional Surveillance. Geneva: World Health Organisation.
  195. (1989). On development, fisheries, and dynamite: a brief review of tropical fisheries management.
  196. (1990). On Malthusian Overfishing,
  197. (1996). Once a Generation: the search for Universal Food Security.
  198. (1991). Paper presented to a Conference on Agriculture, Education and Information Transfer,
  199. (1995). Participation and power. In Power and participatory development. Theory and practices. 1st edn, ppl-18. Edited by
  200. (1995). Participation in context: key questions. In Power, Process and Participation - Tools for Change -, 1st edn,
  201. (1995). Participation, empowerment and sustainable development.
  202. (1997). Participatory methods for community-based coastal resource management.
  203. (1994). Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA): analysis of experience.
  204. (1995). Participatory Rural Appraisal and Questionnaire Survey (Comparative field experience and methodological innovations).
  205. (1994). Participatory Rural Appraisal: challenges, potentials and paradigm.
  206. (1968). Pedagogy of the Oppressed.
  207. (1982). People pressure and management of limited resources on Yap. In National parks, conservation and development: the role of Protected Areas in sustaining societies. (eds: McNeely, Miller), Smithsonian Institute Press,
  208. (1992). Per recruit simulation model for evaluating spatial closures in and Australian penaeid fishery. Aquatic Living Resources.,
  209. (1986). Periodic high risk as a cause of fertility decline in a changing rural environment: survival strategies
  210. (1996). Population and ecosystem effects of reef fishing.
  211. (1981). Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlements and Deprivation.
  212. (1996). Principles for the conservation of wild living resources.
  213. (1987). Rapid assessment techniques for coastal wetland evaluation. Results of workshop held in
  214. (1995). Rapid build up of fish biomass in a Caribbean marine reserve.
  215. (1990). Rapid rural appraisal for fisheries development: testing the approach in afisherfolk community, Tamil Nadu, India. Report of a consultancy for the Bay of Bengal Fisheries Devlopment Programme.
  216. (1990). Rapid rural appraisal of Malampaya Sound,
  217. (1998). Recreational use of coral reefs in the Maldives and Caribbean.
  218. (1993). Reefs at Risk: a programme for action.
  219. (1996). Report of the KWSplanning workshops. Coast region, KWS report.
  220. (1975). Report of the World food Conference,
  221. (1993). Report on the distribution of habitats and Species of the Kisite MNP and the Mpunguti MNR.
  222. (1982). Report on the Need for Management and Marine Parks in the Egyptian Red Sea. Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Academy of Sciences,
  223. (1994). Research directed at developing local organisations for people's participation in fisheries management.
  224. (1995). Research Methods in Anthropology, Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. 2nd edn. London: Altamira Press, division of Sage Publications.
  225. (1991). Resident attitudes about a national park in Sabah, Malaysia.
  226. (1996). Resolving people-sanctuary conflict in Protected Areas: Kushiara village,
  227. (1984). Resource limitation and recruitment patterns in coral reef fish assemblage.
  228. (1991). Revised Edition
  229. (1995). Role of marine reserves in recruitment to reef fisheries: a metapopulation model.
  230. (1991). RRA and the analysis of difference.
  231. (1992). Rural appraisal: rapid, relaxed and participatory.
  232. (1995). Safeguarding future fish supplies: key policy issues and measures.
  233. (1995). Selection of marine protected areas.
  234. (1997). Sex tourism in South East Asia.
  235. (1996). Seychelles' Marine Protected Areas: Comparative structure and status of reef fish communities. Biological Conservation.
  236. (1983). Silent violence: Food, Famine and Peasantry in
  237. (1997). Social contact between tourists and hosts of different cultural backgrounds: Interaction difficulties in cross-cultural tourist-host contact.
  238. (1997). Social difference and water resource management.
  239. (1991). Social impact assessment: its role in protected area planning and management.
  240. (1964). Socio-cultural factors affecting the diet of the Northeast coastal Bantu.
  241. (1994). Socio-economic and ecological prospects for multiple use of protected areas in Africa.
  242. (1992). Sociocultural aspects of establishing marine protected areas.
  243. (1987). Sociology theory and methods, social impact assessment and fisheries.
  244. (1995). State of the reefs: regional and global perspectives. NOAA,
  245. (1997). Statistics for Social Reasearch. 1st edn.
  246. (1995). Status of Kenyan coral reefs.
  247. (1998). Tackling household food security through adaptive research: lessons from the dryland applied research and extension project,
  248. (1994). The applicability of visitor impact management strategies to the protection of coral reefs.
  249. (1995). The application of rapid rural appraisal techniques in coastal resources planning: experience
  250. (1998). The benefits of the Kisite Marine National Park as perceived by the stakeholders. In Partnerships for Conservation:
  251. (1993). The Bermuda Fisheries :a tragedy of the commons averted?
  252. (1994). The concise Oxford dictionary of sociology. Oxford:
  253. (1982). The distribution, abundance and development of young Jamaican reef fishes.
  254. (1997). The Earthscan reader in sustainable tourism. London: Earthscan
  255. (1992). The Economic Valuation of Coral Reefs.
  256. (1998). The economics of wildlife conservation policy in Kenya.
  257. (1998). The Economist Intelligence Unit.
  258. (1991). The effects of protection level on a coastal fish community at Scandola,
  259. (1997). The effects of traditional fisheries management systems on fisheries yields and the coral-reef ecosystems of southern Kenya.
  260. (1997). The effects of visitor use on the hard coral community of the Kisite Marine Park, Kenya.
  261. (1996). The environmental status of reefs on Maldivian resort islands: a preliminary assessment for tourism planning. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems
  262. (1999). The final and optimal crisis of the century. UNESCO- The Courrier
  263. (1947). The Fishes and Fisheries of the Gold Coast. London: the Crown Agents for the Colonies.
  264. (1989). The Food and Nutritional Surveillance Systems of Chad and Mali: the "SAP" after two years.
  265. (1999). The globalization of tourism,
  266. (1990). The great barrier reef marine park: how does it work for fishermen? Australian Fisheries
  267. (1994). The growth of coastal tourism in the Red Sea: present and future effects on coral reefs.
  268. (1988). The Growth of Islam among the Myikenda of the Kenya Coast.
  269. (1978). The Kaya Complex. A History of the M ikenda Peoples of the Kenya Coast to 1900. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau.
  270. (1983). The Law of the Sea: United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.
  271. (1995). The outlook for the World Food Agriculture to year 2010.
  272. (1988). The overfishing of marine resources: socio economic background in Southeast Asia.
  273. (1998). The paradox of fairness: the impact of escalating complexity on fishery management.
  274. (1998). The research process: sustaining quality and maximizing impact. In Whose Voice? Participatory research and policy changes, 1st edn,
  275. (1996). The role of Marine Protected Areas and Fisheries Refuge.
  276. (1996). The role of protected areas in the management of Kenyan reef fish stocks. PhD thesis.
  277. (1989). The role of Socio-economic data in Food Need Assessment. Disasters
  278. (1996). The Rome Declaration of on World Food Security and the World Food Summit Plan ofAction.
  279. (1996). The Scope of tropical reef fisheries and their management. In Reef Fisheries, Ist edn,
  280. (1988). The Sensitivity of Coral Reefs to Environmental Pollution.
  281. (1985). The traditional knowledge and management of coastal systems in Asia and the Pacific.
  282. (1998). The use of RRA to inform Policy: tenure issues in Madagascar and Guinea. In Whose Voice? Participatory research and policy changes, Ist edn,
  283. (1997). The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital.
  284. (1982). The World Coverage of Protected Areas: Development Goals and Environmental Needs.
  285. (1993). The World Food Outlook. Washington
  286. (1995). Tools for environmental and social change.
  287. Tour Operators They were at the time (1999) the Shimoni non-local tour operators
  288. (1981). Tourism in the Caribbean: impacts on the economic, social and natural environments.
  289. (1990). Traditional Marine Resource Management in the Pacific Basin: an Anthology. Study N°2.
  290. (1997). Tropical marine fisheries and the future of coral reefs: a brief review with emphasis on SouthEast Asia. Coral Reefs 13,
  291. (1994). Uncertainty and Risk Evaluation in Stock Assessment Advice for U.
  292. (1993). Uncertainty, resource exploitation and conservation: lessons from history.
  293. (2000). Undertaking PhD: Managing without institutions: the role of communication networks in governing resource access and control.
  294. (1997). University of Warwick, undertaking a PhD (at the time) on governance of natural resources
  295. (1998). unpublished repport: The precautionary principle. Amended version
  296. (1986). What do genetics and ecology tell us about the design of nature reserves?
  297. (1997). Whose Reality counts? Putting the first last.
  298. (1998). Whose Voice? Participatory research and policy changes. Ist edn. London: Intermediate Technology publications.
  299. (1989). Why are rural people vulnerable to famine?
  300. (1976). Witchcraft, Oracles and Magic among the Azande.
  301. (1981). Words of the Lagoon.
  302. (1998). Workshop on No take Zones (NTZ)- The way forward.
  303. (1988). workshop on the assessment of to fishery resources in the Southwest Indian Ocean.
  304. (1983). World Food Security: A reappraisal of the Concepts and Approaches. Director-General's Report,
  305. (1992). World marine fisheries management and development.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.