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AN ANALYSIS OF THE DNA DAMAGE INDUCED BY NICKEL COMPOUNDS IN CHINESE HAMSTER OVARY CELLS (CARCINOGENESIS, HETEROCHROMATIN, CYTOTOXICITY, REPLICATION, PROTEIN CROSSLINKING)

By STEVEN ROBERT PATIERNO

Abstract

The carcinogenic activity of water-insoluble crystalline nickel sulfide requires phagocytosis and lysosome-mediated intracellular dissolution of the particles to yield Ni(\u272+). This study investigated the extent and nature of the DNA damage in Chinese hamster ovary cells treated with various nickel compounds using the technique of alkaline elution. Crystalline NiS and water-soluble NiCl(,2) induced single strand breaks that were repaired quickly and DNA-protein crosslinks that persisted up to 24 hr after exposure to nickel. The induction of single strand breaks was concentration dependent at both noncytotoxic and lethal amounts of nickel. The induction of DNA-protein crosslinks was concentration dependent but was absent at lethal amounts of nickel. The cytoplasmic and nuclear uptake of nickel was concentration dependent even at the toxic level of nickel. However, the induction of DNA-protein crosslinks by nickel required active cell cycling and occurred predominantly in mid-late S phase of the cell cycle, suggesting that the lethal amounts of nickel inhibited DNA-protein crosslinking by inhibiting active cell cycling. Since the DNA-protein crosslinking induced by nickel was resistant to DNA repair, the nature of this lesion was investigated using various methods of DNA isolation and chromatin fractionation in combination with SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. High molecular weight, non-histone chromosomal proteins and possibly histone 1 were preferentially crosslinked to DNA by nickel. The crosslinked proteins were concentrated in a magnesium-insoluble fraction of sonicated chromatin (5% of the total) that was similar to heterochromatin in solubility and protein composition. Alterations in DNA structure and function, brought about by the effect of nickel on protein-DNA interactions, may be related to the carcinogenicity of nickel compounds

Topics: Pharmacology|Public health
Publisher: DigitalCommons@TMC
Year: 1985
OAI identifier: oai:digitalcommons.library.tmc.edu:dissertations-2191
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