Location of Repository

An epidemiological study of foot, limb and body lesions and lameness in pigs

By A. L. (Amy L.) Kilbride

Abstract

A cross sectional study of 103 indoor and outdoor British pig farms was carried out in 2003-2004. Over 12,000 pigs aged from 3 days up to multiparious breeding sows were examined. Prevalence of foot, limb and body lesions and lameness was recorded using clear case definitions. Detailed data were also collected on the pen or paddock that the pigs were housed in with particular reference to the floor design, material and condition. Associations between prevalence of disease and the environment the pig was housed in were analysed using multilevel regression models. Post-mortem examination of a small sample of foot and limb lesions was carried out to better understand the pathology. \ud There was a lower prevalence of body and limb lesions in pigs of all ages, and foot lesions in preweaning piglets, housed outdoors compared with indoors. However, there was little difference in the prevalence of foot lesions and lameness in gilts and pregnant sows kept indoors compared with outdoors. \ud In most pigs housed indoors, there was a trend for an increased risk of limb and body lesions and lameness in pigs housed on hard and slatted floors compared with solid concrete floors with bedding. Although, in contrast to this the prevalence of wounds on the limbs in piglets was lower on slatted floors compared with solid concrete floors. The associations between foot lesions and indoor floor type varied with the age of the pig and the type of lesion. In piglets, sole bruising was associated with housing on slatted floors while sole erosion was associated with housing on solid concrete floors without bedding. In gilts and sows, heel flaps were associated with housing on slatted floors while toe erosion was associated with solid floors with deep bedding. \ud In conclusion, this study has provided the most accurate estimates of the prevalence of foot, limb, body lesions and lameness in the English pig herd to date and generated useful hypotheses regarding the aetiology of these lesions. To further understand this topic cohort and intervention studies are now needed

Topics: SF
OAI identifier: oai:wrap.warwick.ac.uk:3022

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. (2003). A case control study of on-farm risk factors for tail biting in pigs. doi
  2. (2007). A descriptive survey of lesions from cull sows harvested at two Midwestern U.S. facilities. Preventive Veterinary Afedicine. doi
  3. (1995). A floor overlay for reducing leg abrasion injuries in piglets.
  4. (2007). A pig farm retrospective cohort study of hazards for breakdown with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. The Veterinary Record.l60, doi
  5. (1993). A study of adventitious bursitis of the hock of the pigs.
  6. (2000). A users guide to MLwiN, Version 2.1, Multilevel Models Project,
  7. (1998). Adventitious bursitis of the hock in finishing pigs: prevalence, distribution and association with floor type and foot lesions. The Veterinary Record. doi
  8. (1998). An epidemiological study of foot and limb lesions in growing pigs.
  9. (2005). Animal welfare and the intensification of animal production; an alterative interpretation. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations.
  10. (1991). Animal welfare: concepts and measurement. doi
  11. (2005). Animal welfare: Limping towards Eden. doi
  12. (2004). Associations between lying-down behaviour problems and body condition, limb disorders and skin lesions of lactating sows housed in farrowing crates in commercial sow herds. doi
  13. (2000). Behaviour of 3-week weaned pigs in straw-flow, deep straw and flat deck housing systems. doi
  14. (1979). Behavioural and physical effects of flooring on piglets and sows. doi
  15. (1995). Causes of mortality among sows in Danish pig herds. The Veterinary Record. doi
  16. Clinical observations of necrosis of the skin in suckling piglets. doi
  17. (1990). Clinical, pathological and microbiological findings of foot abscess in neonatal pigs.
  18. Commission directive (2001). Minimum standards for the protection of pigs 2001l931EC. Commission of the European Communities,
  19. (1984). Compressive stresses on, and the strength of, the inner and outer digits of pigs feet and the implications for injury and floor design. doi
  20. (2001). Dchaviour and performance of lactating sows and piglets reared indoors or outdoors.
  21. (1990). Diseases of the hind legs on pigs with regard to bursitis and their relation to the type of floor. Berliner und Munichener Tierarztliche Woschenschrift.
  22. (1992). Do Animals feel pain?
  23. (1984). Effect of n dietary supplement of biotin on pig hoof hom strength and hardness. The Veterinary Record. doi
  24. (1987). Effects of farrowing crate floors on health and performance of piglets and sows. The Veterinary Record, doi
  25. (1989). Effects of sow-crate design on health and performance of sows and piglets.
  26. (2003). Environment Food and rural Affairs (DEFRA). June census data,
  27. (1997). Epidemiologic evaluation of decubital ulcers in farrowing sows.
  28. Epidemiologic study of decubital ulcers in sows.
  29. (2005). Evaluation of patterns of removal and associations among culling because of lameness and sow productivity traits in swine breeding herds. doi
  30. (2007). Evaluation of the acute phase protein haptoglobin as an indicator of herd health in slaughter pigs.
  31. (2004). Factors asso~l~ted With Suckling piglets average daily gain. Preventive Veterinary Medlczne.
  32. (2007). Factors associated with claw lesions in gestating sows.
  33. (1993). Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC)
  34. (2001). Farm animal welfare: the five freedoms and the free market. doi
  35. (1993). Field research on veterinary problems in group-housed sows-a survey of lameness. Zentralblattfur Veterinarmedizil1. Reihe A.
  36. (1984). Floor surfaces and flooring materials for pigs. Pig news and information.
  37. (2007). Food Outlook Global market analysis. Food and Agriculture Organisation,
  38. (1999). Foot lesions in finishing pigs and their associations with the type of floor. The Veterinary Record, doi
  39. (1979). Genetical, physiological and anatomical factors contributing to foot and limb disorders in growing and adult pigs including a statistical review of foot and limb disorders in pigs attributable to floors.
  40. (2004). Health conditions of growingfinishing pigs in fully-slatted pens and multi-surface systems. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift.
  41. (2002). Health conditions of two genotypes of growing-finishing pig in three different housing systems: implications for welfare. Livestock Production Science. doi
  42. (1995). Housing of pregnant sows in loose and confined systems - a field study. 3. The impact of housing factors on claw lesions.
  43. (1995). Housing of pregnant sows in loose ond confined systems - a field study. 2. Claw lesions: morphology, prevalence, location and relation to age. Acta veterinaria Scandinavica.
  44. (2006). Identifying and preventing pain in animals. doi
  45. (1999). Incidence of foot and skin lesions in nursing piglets and their associated with behavioural activities. The Veterinary Record. doi
  46. (2003). Influence of floor type and stocking density on leg weakness, osteochondrosis and claw disorders in slaughter pigs.
  47. (1984). Injuries in confined sows. Incidence and relation with behaviour. Annales de Recherches Veterinaires.
  48. (2006). Injuries, lameness, and cleanliness of sows in four group-housing gestation facilities in Ontario.
  49. (1997). Lameness and arthritis in the growing and finishing pig.
  50. (2006). Lameness and fertility of sows and gilts in randomly selected loose-housed herds in Finland. The Veterinary Record. doi
  51. (2004). Lameness in piglets. Abrasions in nursing piglets and transfer of protection towards infections with Streptococci from sow to offspring. doi
  52. (1988). Lameness in pigs associated with foot and limb disorders. doi
  53. (2000). Lifetime reproductive performance in female pigs having distinct reasons of removal. doi
  54. (2005). Locomotive disorders associated with sow mortality in Danish pig herds. doi
  55. (2003). Lying characteristics as determinants for space requirements in pigs. doi
  56. (2006). Meat and Livestock Commission. doi
  57. (2001). Minimum standards for the protection of pigs 2001l881EC. Commission ofthe European Communities,
  58. (1996). Multivariate dependencies; models, analysis and interpretation. doi
  59. (2007). Naming and recognition of six foot lesions of sheep using written and pictorial information: a study of 809 English sheep farmers. Preventive Veterinary Afedicine. doi
  60. (2003). Observational research design II: Cohort, cross sectional and case control studies. doi
  61. (1977). Observations of injuries to suckled pigs confined on perforated floors with special reference to expanded metal (2073F). The Pig Journal.
  62. (1974). Observations of some conditions in pigs at the abattoir with particular reference to tail biting. The Veterinary Record. doi
  63. (1971). Observations on injuries to sows confined in part slatted stalls. The Veterinary Record. doi
  64. (1995). Pathological and radiological investigations on osteochondrosis in pigs, associated with leg weakness. doi
  65. (1994). Pig health and production surveillance in Denmark: sampling design, data recording and measures of disease frequency. doi
  66. (1998). Pig housing. systems in Europe: current distributions and tends.
  67. (1997). Prevalence and distribution of foot lesions in finishing pigs in south-west England. The Veterinary Record.141, doi
  68. (1999). Prevalence and risk factors associated with adventitious bursitis in live growing and finishing pigs in south-west England. Preventative Veterinary Aledicine. doi
  69. (1999). Prevalence of foot and limb lesions in 528 weaned pigs from 15 units in south-west England. The Veterinary Record. doi
  70. (1992). Prevalence of leg weakness in broiler chickens and its relationship with genotype. doi
  71. (1999). Prevalence of lesions and body condition scores among female swine at slaughter.
  72. (2004). Prevalences of welfare related lesions at post-morten meat-inspection in Danish sows. Preventive Veterinary Afedicine. doi
  73. (1999). Protocol on Protection and Welfare of Animals: annex to the EC Treaty via the Treaty of Amsterdam.
  74. (1995). Provision of straw as n foraging substrate reduces the development of excessive chain and bar manipulntion in food restricted sows. doi
  75. (1998). Questionnnire survey of proliferative enteropathy on British pig farms. The Veterinary Record. doi
  76. (2000). Repeatability of a lameness scoring system for finishing pigs. The Veterinary Record. doi
  77. (1993). Review of health problems in group housed sows, with special emphasis on lameness. Veterinary Quarterly. doi
  78. (1998). Sow Culling Patterns and Sow Welfare. Irish Veterinary Journal incorporating Irish Veterinary Times.
  79. (2006). Sow shoulder lesions: Risk factors and treatment effects on an Ontario farm. doi
  80. Studies of adventitious bursitis of the hock in pigs.
  81. (2006). Study design III: Cross-sectional studies. Evidence-based dentistry. doi
  82. (1989). The behaviour of pigs in n scmi-nntural environment. Animal Production. doi
  83. (2003). The costs and benefits of farm assurance to livestock producers in England. Final report for Meat and Livestock Commission, Centre for Food Chain Research.
  84. (2006). The development of skin, claw and teat lesions in sows and piglets in farrowing crates with two concrete flooring materials. doi
  85. (1995). The effect of claw lesions and claw infections on lameness in loose housing of pregnant sows.
  86. (2007). The effect of lameness treatments and treatments for other health disorders on the weight gain and feed conversion in boars at a Danish test station. Livestock Science. doi
  87. (2002). The international costs competitiveness of the Irish pig industry.
  88. (2000). The locomotion of dairy cows on concrete floors that are dry, wet or covered with a slurry of excreta. doi
  89. (1979). The occurrence of leg injuries on piglets with the various treatment of the floor surfnce of the farrowing pen.
  90. (1967). The occurrence of swelling of the hock region in white pork breeds.
  91. (2000). The origin of the domestic pig: independent domestication and subsequent introgression.
  92. (1999). The prevalence and risk factors associated with forelimb skin abrasions and sole bruising in prewcaning piglets. Preventative Veterinary Afedicine. doi
  93. (1994). The relationship between adventitious bursitis of the hock, breed and heritability. In:
  94. (1984). The welfare of adult pigs: The effects of five housing treatments on behaviour, plasma corticosteroids and injuries. doi
  95. (2006). The welfare of finishing pigs in two contrasting housing systems: Fully-slatted versus straw-bedded accommodation. Livestock doi
  96. (2007). The welfare of gestating sows in conventional stalls and large groups on deep litter. doi
  97. (2006). Through animal eyes: what behaviour tell us. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. doi
  98. (2004). Use of Epidemiology to assess animal welfare - advantages and disadvantages.
  99. (2007). Validation of two measures of lameness in dairy cows. doi
  100. (2003). Variation in ranging and activity behaviour of European wild boar Sus scrofa in Sweden. Wildlife Biology.
  101. (2003). Veterinary Epidemiological Research. Publisher AVC.
  102. (1993). Why is there no simple way of measuring animal welfare?
  103. (2008). Winter habitat selection by wild boar Sus scrofa in southeastern Poland. doi
  104. (1990). Zurn EinfluB der lIaltung auf die Anbildung von Sehwielen und subkutanen Schleirnbeuteln an den GliedrnaBen der Schweine.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.