Location of Repository

Subcellular location and protein interactions of the infectious bronchitis virus gene 3 and 5 accessory proteins

By Marc Tudor Davies

Abstract

The avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) expresses four nonstructural, non-gene 1 proteins (3a, 3b, 5a and 5b) which have been shown to be dispensable for virus replication in cell culture. These IBV accessory proteins have no sequence homology to any of the accessory proteins of the group I and II coronaviruses but are highly conserved among the group III coronaviruses. \ud Characterisation of naturally occurring strains of IBV which do not express two or more of the accessory proteins and of genetically modified recombinant IBVs has demonstrated that these accessory proteins contribute at most a minor role to the pathogenicity of the virus. To understand the relevance of these proteins for IBV the subcellular location of the 3a, 5a and 5b proteins have been characterised along with the identification of potential protein-protein interactions for the 3a protein. The subcellular location and protein-protein interactions of the 3b protein were attempted but specific problems were encountered. \ud Indirect immunofluorescence with confocal microscopy of IBV-infected chick kidney cells was used to study the subcellular location of the accessory proteins. The 3a protein displayed a punctate, cytoplasmic distribution pattern which colocalised with virally-induced double-stranded RNA. A diffuse, cytoplasmic distribution was observed for the 5b protein which produced limited colocalisation with an IBV structural protein. Expression of a FLAG-tagged 5a protein in transfected Vero cells resulted in a punctate, cytoplasmic pattern. The protein interactions of the 3a protein were identified using FLAG-tag pull-down experiments with tandem mass spectrometry. Six cellular proteins were identified as interacting with the FLAG/3a protein within transfected Vero cells, three of which, GCN1, PP2A and Exportin-1, may interact with native 3a protein in IBV-infected cells. \ud The 3a protein could sequester the viral dsRNA to hide it from the innate immune system and the potential interactions with three cellular proteins indicate that the IBV 3a protein may contribute to attenuation of host cell translation, induce cell cycle arrest and/or attenuate the nuclear export of a specific subset of mRNAs

Topics: SF, QL
OAI identifier: oai:wrap.warwick.ac.uk:3145

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. (2006). 7a protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus inhibits cellular protein synthesis and activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.
  2. (2003). A comparative sequence analysis to revise the current taxonomy of the family Coronaviridae.
  3. (2000). A mammalian homologue of GCN2 protein kinase important for translational control by phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha.
  4. (2004). A novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus protein, U274, is transported to the cell surface and undergoes endocytosis.
  5. (1991). A polycistronic mRNA specified by the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus.
  6. (2008). A SARS-CoV protein, ORF-6, induces caspase-3 mediated, ER stress and JNK-dependent apoptosis.
  7. (2006). A second, noncanonical RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in SARS coronavirus.
  8. (2005). A severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus-specific protein enhances virulence of an attenuated murine coronavirus.
  9. (1998). A signaling complex of Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV and protein phosphatase 2A.
  10. (1991). A system for study of coronavirus mRNA synthesis: a regulated, expressed subgenomic defective interfering RNA results from intergenic site insertion.
  11. (2007). Absence of E protein arrests transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus maturation in the secretory pathway.
  12. (2007). Activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress response by hepatitis viruses up-regulates protein phosphatase 2A.
  13. (1999). Activation of the cyclin D1 gene by the E1A-associated protein p300 through AP-1 inhibits cellular apoptosis.
  14. (1999). Activity of a purified Histagged 3C-like proteinase from the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus.
  15. (2008). Alpha/beta interferon inhibits cap-dependent translation of viral but not cellular mRNA by a PKR-independent mechanism.
  16. (1999). Altered growth characteristics of recombinant respiratory syncytial viruses which do not produce NS2 protein.
  17. (1988). Amino acids within hypervariable region 1 of avian coronavirus IBV (Massachusetts serotype) spike glycoprotein are associated with neutralization epitopes.
  18. (1992). Aminopeptidase N is a major receptor for the enteropathogenic coronavirus TGEV.
  19. (1987). An efficient ribosomal frame-shifting signal in the polymerase-encoding region of the coronavirus IBV.
  20. (2009). Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a functional receptor for the SARS coronavirus.
  21. (2009). Antiapoptotic activity of the cardiovirus leader protein, a viral "security" protein.
  22. (2005). Antibody responses to individual proteins of SARS coronavirus and their neutralization activities.
  23. (2006). Antigenic and cellular localisation analysis of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nucleocapsid protein using monoclonal antibodies.
  24. (1999). Arterivirus discontinuous mRNA transcription is guided by base pairing between sense and antisense transcription-regulating sequences.
  25. (1990). Assembly of coronavirus spike protein into trimers and its role in epitope expression.
  26. Association of GCN1-GCN20 regulatory complex with the N-terminus of eIF2alpha kinase GCN2 is required for GCN2 activation.
  27. (1991). Association of the infectious bronchitis virus 3c protein with the virion envelope.
  28. (1991). Bovine coronavirus nonstructural protein ns2 is a phosphoprotein.
  29. (2002). Bunyamwera bunyavirus nonstructural protein NSs counteracts the induction of alpha/beta interferon.
  30. (2001). Bunyamwera bunyavirus nonstructural protein NSs is a nonessential gene product that contributes to viral pathogenesis.
  31. (2004). C and V proteins of Sendai virus target signaling pathways leading to IRF-3 activation for the negative regulation of interferon-beta production.
  32. (2006). Cell cycle perturbations induced by infection with the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus and their effect on virus replication.
  33. (1993). Cell-dependent requirement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif protein for maturation of virus particles.
  34. (1999). Characterisation of a recent virulent transmissible gastroenteritis virus from Britain with a deleted ORF 3a.
  35. (2007). Characterisation of cyclin D1 down-regulation in coronavirus infected cells.
  36. (2004). Characterization of a unique group-specific protein (U122) of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.
  37. (1989). Characterization of an efficient coronavirus ribosomal frameshifting signal: requirement for an RNA pseudoknot.
  38. (2000). Characterization of infectious bronchitis viruses isolated from outbreaks of disease in commercial flocks in Brazil.
  39. (2000). Characterization of the coronavirus M protein and nucleocapsid interaction in infected cells.
  40. (2001). cis-acting sequences required for coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus defective-RNA replication and packaging.
  41. (1999). Colocalization and membrane association of murine hepatitis virus gene 1 products and De novo-synthesized viral RNA in infected cells.
  42. (2009). Comparative analysis of complete genome sequences of three avian coronaviruses reveals a novel group 3c coronavirus.
  43. (2007). Comparative analysis of twelve genomes of three novel group 2c and group 2d coronaviruses reveals unique group and subgroup features.
  44. (1991). Comparative study of respiratory lesions in two chicken lines of different susceptibility infected with infectious bronchitis virus: histology, ultrastructure and immunohistochemistry.
  45. (2005). Comparison of affinity tags for protein purification.
  46. (1994). Comparison of heterotrimeric protein phosphatase 2A containing different B subunits.
  47. (1979). Comparison of the morphology of three coronaviruses.
  48. (2007). Complete genomic sequences, a key residue in the spike protein and deletions in nonstructural protein 3b of US strains of the virulent and attenuated coronaviruses, transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine respiratory coronavirus.
  49. (2006). conserved features of genome and proteome of SARScoronavirus, an early split-off from the coronavirus group 2 lineage.
  50. (2005). Contribution of trafficking signals in the cytoplasmic tail of the infectious bronchitis virus spike protein to virus infection.
  51. (1991). Control of protein phosphatase 2A by simian virus 40 small-t antigen.
  52. (2005). Coronaviral hypothetical and structural proteins were found in the intestinal surface enterocytes and pneumocytes of severe acute respiratory syndrome
  53. (1987). Coronavirus E1 glycoprotein expressed from cloned cDNA localizes in the Golgi region.
  54. (2008). Coronavirus infection modulates the unfolded protein response and mediates sustained translational repression.
  55. (1994). Coronavirus leader RNA regulates and initiates subgenomic mRNA transcription both in trans and in cis.
  56. (1994). Coronavirus M proteins accumulate in the Golgi complex beyond the site of virion budding.
  57. (2004). Coronavirus replication complex formation utilizes components of cellular autophagy.
  58. (2007). Coronavirus replication does not require the autophagy gene ATG5.
  59. (1994). Coronavirus translational regulation: leader affects mRNA efficiency.
  60. (2002). Coronaviruses from pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) are genetically closely related to coronaviruses of domestic fowl (infectious bronchitis virus) and turkeys.
  61. (2007). coronaviruses prevent immediate early interferon induction by protection of viral RNA from host cell recognition.
  62. (1997). CRM1 is an export receptor for leucine-rich nuclear export signals.
  63. (2004). CRM1-dependent, but not ARE-mediated, nuclear export of IFN-alpha1 mRNA.
  64. (2001). Detection of a coronavirus from turkey poults in Europe genetically related to infectious bronchitis virus of chickens.
  65. (2002). Detection of novel members, structure-function analysis and evolutionary classification of the 2H phosphoesterase superfamily.
  66. (1997). Determinants of mouse hepatitis virus 3C-like proteinase activity.
  67. (2006). Differential localization and turnover of infectious bronchitis virus 3b protein in mammalian versus avian cells.
  68. (2006). Discovery of an RNA virus 3'->5' exoribonuclease that is critically involved in coronavirus RNA synthesis.
  69. (2001). Down-modulation of the costimulatory molecule, CD28, is a conserved activity of multiple SIV Nefs and is dependent on histidine 196 of Nef.
  70. (2006). Downregulation of cell-surface CD4 expression by simian immunodeficiency virus Nef prevents viral super infection.
  71. (2002). Effects of influenza A virus NS1 protein on protein expression: the NS1 protein enhances translation and is not required for shutoff of host protein synthesis.
  72. (2001). Efficacy of a transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus with an altered ORF-3 gene.
  73. (1988). Efficacy of infectious bronchitis virus vaccines against heterologous challenge.
  74. (2003). Emergence of a coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus mutant with a truncated 3b gene: functional characterization of the 3b protein in pathogenesis and replication.
  75. (2003). Engineering the transmissible gastroenteritis virus genome as an expression vector inducing lactogenic immunity.
  76. (2007). Enhancement of murine coronavirus replication by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus protein 6 requires the N-terminal hydrophobic region but not C-terminal sorting motifs.
  77. (2002). Enumeration of the simian virus 40 early region elements necessary for human cell transformation.
  78. (1995). Envelope glycoprotein interactions in coronavirus assembly.
  79. (1997). Evidence that GCN1 and GCN20, translational regulators of GCN4, function on elongating ribosomes in activation of eIF2alpha kinase GCN2.
  80. (1997). Exportin 1 (Crm1p) is an essential nuclear export factor.
  81. (2005). Expression and purification of SARS coronavirus proteins using SUMO-fusions.
  82. (2007). Expression, post-translational modification and biochemical characterization of proteins encoded by subgenomic mRNA8 of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.
  83. (1996). Feline aminopeptidase N serves as a receptor for feline, canine, porcine, and human coronaviruses in serogroup I.
  84. (2008). Field strain feline coronaviruses with small deletions in ORF7b associated with both enteric infection and feline infectious peritonitis.
  85. (2009). Functional screen reveals SARS coronavirus nonstructural protein nsp14 as a novel cap N7 methyltransferase.
  86. (1999). Further requirements for cleavage by the murine coronavirus 3C-like proteinase: identification of a cleavage site within ORF1b.
  87. (2005). G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis induced by SARS-CoV 3b protein in transfected cells.
  88. (2007). G1 phase cell cycle arrest induced by SARSCoV 3a protein via the cyclin D3/pRb pathway.
  89. (1993). GCN1, a translational activator of GCN4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is required for phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 by protein kinase GCN2.
  90. (1995). GCN20, a novel ATP binding cassette protein, and GCN1 reside in a complex that mediates activation of the eIF-2 alpha kinase GCN2 in amino acid-starved cells.
  91. (2005). Gene 5 of the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus is not essential for replication.
  92. (1998). Generation of a mutant infectious bursal disease virus that does not cause bursal lesions.
  93. (2007). Genetic analysis of Murine hepatitis virus nsp4 in virus replication.
  94. (2008). Genome organization and reverse genetic analysis of a type I feline coronavirus.
  95. (1993). Genome organization of porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus.
  96. (2003). Genome-wide analysis of nuclear mRNA export pathways in Drosophila.
  97. (2006). GLI3-dependent transcriptional repression of Gli1, Gli2 and kidney patterning genes disrupts renal morphogenesis.
  98. (2008). Guidelines for this thesis taken from the Guide to Postgraduate
  99. (2000). High affinity interaction between nucleocapsid protein and leader/intergenic sequence of mouse hepatitis virus RNA.
  100. (1996). Histopathology and immunohistochemistry of renal lesions due to infectious bronchitis virus in chicks.
  101. (2001). HIV-1 Vpr induces cell cycle G2 arrest in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) through a pathway involving regulatory and catalytic subunits of PP2A and acting on both
  102. (1981). Host cell nuclear function and murine hepatitis virus replication.
  103. (1992). Human aminopeptidase N is a receptor for human coronavirus 229E.
  104. (1992). Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein induces rapid degradation of CD4.
  105. (1990). Human immunodeficiency virus vpr product is a virion-associated regulatory protein.
  106. (2009). Human respiratory syncytial virus nonstructural protein NS2 antagonizes the activation of beta interferon transcription by interacting with RIG-I.
  107. (2003). Human T-cell leukemia virus-I tax oncoprotein functionally targets a subnuclear complex involved in cellular DNA damage-response.
  108. (2003). Human Tlymphotropic virus type I tax activates I-kappa B kinase by inhibiting I-kappa B kinase-associated serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A.
  109. (2004). Identification and characterization of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus replicase proteins.
  110. (1990). Identification and stability of a 30-kDa nonstructural protein encoded by mRNA 2 of mouse hepatitis virus in infected cells.
  111. (2004). Identification of a new human coronavirus.
  112. (2008). Identification of a novel coronavirus from a beluga whale by using a panviral microarray.
  113. (2002). Identification of mutations associated with attenuation of virulence of a field Sendai virus isolate by egg passage.
  114. (2009). Identification of sequence changes responsible for the attenuation of avian infectious bronchitis virus strain Arkansas DPI.
  115. (2004). Identification of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus replicase products and characterization of papain-like protease activity.
  116. (2008). Identification of the avian infectious bronchitis coronaviruses with mutations in gene 3.
  117. (1994). Identification of the cis-acting signal for minus-strand RNA synthesis of a murine coronavirus: implications for the role of minus-strand RNA in RNA replication and transcription.
  118. (1992). Identification of two new polypeptides encoded by mRNA5 of the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus.
  119. (2007). IFNbeta induction by influenza A virus is mediated by RIG-I which is regulated by the viral NS1 protein.
  120. (2005). IMPACT, a protein preferentially expressed in the mouse brain, binds GCN1 and inhibits GCN2 activation.
  121. (1987). In vitro replication of mouse hepatitis virus strain A59.
  122. (2007). Induction of apoptosis by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 7a protein is dependent on its interaction with the Bcl-XL protein.
  123. (2001). Induction of apoptosis in vitro by the 17-kDa nonstructural protein of infectious bursal disease virus: possible role in viral pathogenesis.
  124. (1984). Induction of humoral neutralising and haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody by the spike protein of avian infectious bronchitis virus.
  125. (1995). Induction of Sp1 phosphorylation and NF-kappa Bindependent HIV promoter domain activity in T lymphocytes stimulated by okadaic acid.
  126. (2008). Infection of the tracheal epithelium by infectious bronchitis virus is sialic acid dependent.
  127. (2000). Infectious bronchitis virus E protein is targeted to the Golgi complex and directs release of virus-like particles.
  128. (1992). Infectious bronchitis virus: evidence for recombination within the Massachusetts serotype.
  129. (2008). Infectious bronchitis viruses with a novel genomic organization.
  130. (1998). Influenza A virus lacking the NS1 gene replicates in interferon-deficient systems.
  131. (2007). Inhibition of alpha interferon signaling by hepatitis B virus.
  132. (2005). Inhibition of Beta interferon induction by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus suggests a two-step model for activation of interferon regulatory factor 3.
  133. (2007). Inhibition of the alpha/beta interferon response by mouse hepatitis virus at multiple levels.
  134. (2008). Inhibition of the CRM1-mediated nucleocytoplasmic transport by N-azolylacrylates: structure-activity relationship and mechanism of action.
  135. (2005). Insights into SARS-CoV transcription and replication from the structure of the nsp7-nsp8 hexadecamer.
  136. (2009). Interaction of Marek's disease virus oncoprotein Meq with heat shock protein 70 in lymphoid tumour cells.
  137. (2001). Interaction of the hepatitis B virus X protein with the Crm1-dependent nuclear export pathway.
  138. (1988). Interactions between coronavirus nucleocapsid protein and viral RNAs: implications for viral transcription.
  139. (1983). Interferon induces a unique protein in mouse cells bearing a gene for resistance to influenza virus.
  140. (1985). Interferon-induced human protein with homology to protein Mx of influenza virus-resistant mice.
  141. (1992). Internal entry of ribosomes on a tricistronic mRNA encoded by infectious bronchitis virus.
  142. (1994). Internal ribosome entry in the coding region of murine hepatitis virus mRNA 5.
  143. (2007). Intracellular localization of the SARS coronavirus protein 9b: evidence of active export from the nucleus.
  144. (2005). Intracellular localization of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nucleocapsid protein: absence of nucleolar accumulation during infection and after expression as a recombinant protein in vero cells.
  145. (2004). Intracellular targeting signals contribute to localization of coronavirus spike proteins near the virus assembly site.
  146. (1990). Intracellular transport of recombinant coronavirus spike proteins: implications for virus assembly.
  147. (1975). Isolation and morphology of the internal component of human coronavirus, strain 229E.
  148. (2002). Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein.
  149. (1997). Isolation of an avirulent mutant of Sendai virus with two amino acid mutations from a highly virulent field strain through adaptation to LLC-MK2 cells.
  150. (1999). Knockout of the Sendai virus C gene eliminates the viral ability to prevent the interferon-alpha/beta-mediated responses.
  151. (1994). Leukocyte subpopulations in kidney and trachea of chickens infected with infectious bronchitis virus.
  152. (2007). Localization and membrane topology of coronavirus nonstructural protein 4: involvement of the early secretory pathway in replication.
  153. (1999). Localization of mouse hepatitis virus nonstructural proteins and RNA synthesis indicates a role for late endosomes in viral replication.
  154. (1994). Localization of neutralizing epitopes and the receptor-binding site within the amino-terminal 330 amino acids of the murine coronavirus spike protein.
  155. (2001). Localization to the nucleolus is a common feature of coronavirus nucleoproteins, and the protein may disrupt host cell division.
  156. (1999). Mapping of the coronavirus membrane protein domains involved in interaction with the spike protein.
  157. (2007). Membrane topology of murine coronavirus replicase nonstructural protein 3.
  158. (1996). Mengovirus leader is involved in the inhibition of host cell protein synthesis.
  159. (2006). Missorting of LaCrosse virus nucleocapsid protein by the interferon-induced MxA GTPase involves smooth ER membranes.
  160. (2006). Mitochondrial location of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 3b protein.
  161. (2006). Modulation of the unfolded protein response by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein.
  162. (1989). Molecular and biochemical analyses of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vpu protein.
  163. (2009). Molecular characterization of avian infectious bronchitis virus strains from outbreaks in Argentina (2001-2008).
  164. (2005). Molecular characterization of avian infectious bronchitis virus strains isolated in Colombia during
  165. (2004). Molecular evolution of the SARS coronavirus during the course of the SARS epidemic in China.
  166. (2007). Mouse hepatitis coronavirus replication induces host translational shutoff and mRNA decay, with concomitant formation of stress granules and processing bodies.
  167. (2007). Mouse hepatitis virus does not induce Beta interferon synthesis and does not inhibit its induction by double-stranded RNA.
  168. (1998). Mouse hepatitis virus nucleocapsid protein as a translational effector of viral mRNAs.
  169. (1990). Mouse hepatitis virus ORF 2a is expressed in the cytosol of infected mouse fibroblasts.
  170. (2001). Mouse hepatitis virus replicase protein complexes are translocated to sites of M protein accumulation in the ERGIC at late times of infection.
  171. (2000). Mouse hepatitis virus replicase proteins associate with two distinct populations of intracellular membranes.
  172. (1998). Multiple alignment comparison of the non-structural genes of influenza A viruses.
  173. (2007). Multiple antiinterferon actions of the influenza A virus NS1 protein.
  174. (2004). Multiple enzymatic activities associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus helicase.
  175. (1990). Murine coronavirus nonstructural protein ns2 is not essential for virus replication in transformed cells.
  176. (2004). Murine coronavirus nonstructural protein p28 arrests cell cycle in G0/G1 phase.
  177. (2004). Murine coronavirus replication induces cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase.
  178. (2001). Murine coronavirus spike protein determines the ability of the virus to replicate in the liver and cause hepatitis.
  179. (1999). Mutant influenza viruses with a defective NS1 protein cannot block the activation of PKR in infected cells.
  180. (2007). Mutation analysis of a recombinant NS replicon shows that influenza virus NS1 protein blocks the splicing and nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of its own viral mRNA.
  181. (2008). Mutation in murine coronavirus replication protein nsp4 alters assembly of double membrane vesicles.
  182. (1992). Mutational analysis of the "slippery-sequence" component of a coronavirus ribosomal frameshifting signal.
  183. (1995). Nef stimulates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 proviral DNA synthesis.
  184. (2006). Neither the RNA nor the proteins of open reading frames 3a and 3b of the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus are essential for replication.
  185. (1992). Neuraminidase treatment of avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus reveals a hemagglutinating activity that is dependent on sialic acid-containing receptors on erythrocytes.
  186. (1999). NF-kappaB controls cell growth and differentiation through transcriptional regulation of cyclin D1.
  187. (2007). NS1 proteins of avian influenza A viruses can act as antagonists of the human alpha/beta interferon response.
  188. (1996). Nucleocapsid-independent assembly of coronavirus-like particles by co-expression of viral envelope protein genes.
  189. (2000). Nucleocytoplasmic translocation of Stat1 is regulated by a leucine-rich export signal in the coiled-coil domain.
  190. (2005). Nucleolar localization of non-structural protein 3b, a protein specifically encoded by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.
  191. (2007). Open reading frame 8a of the human severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus not only promotes viral replication but also induces apoptosis.
  192. (1994). Optimal infectivity in vitro of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 requires an intact nef gene.
  193. (2009). Organ-Specific Attenuation of Murine Hepatitis Virus (MHV-A59) by Replacement of Catalytic Residues in the Putative Viral Cyclic Phosphodiesterase NS2.
  194. (2006). Over-expression of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 3b protein induces both apoptosis and necrosis
  195. (2004). Overexpression of 7a, a protein specifically encoded by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, induces apoptosis via a caspase-dependent pathway.
  196. (2000). Paramyxoviridae use distinct virus-specific mechanisms to circumvent the interferon response.
  197. (2007). Paramyxovirus Sendai virus V protein counteracts innate virus clearance through IRF-3 activation, but not via interferon, in mice.
  198. (1990). Pathogenesis of H13 nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus.
  199. (2008). Pathogenicity of severe acute respiratory coronavirus deletion mutants in hACE-2 transgenic mice.
  200. (2004). pH-dependent entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus is mediated by the spike glycoprotein and enhanced by dendritic cell transfer through DC-SIGN.
  201. (2005). Polyribosome binding by GCN1 is required for full activation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2{alpha} kinase GCN2 during amino acid starvation.
  202. (1982). Post-translational glycosylation of coronavirus glycoprotein E1: inhibition by monensin.
  203. (1986). Predicted membrane topology of the coronavirus protein E1.
  204. (1999). Processing of the human coronavirus 229E replicase polyproteins by the virus-encoded 3C-like proteinase: identification of proteolytic products and cleavage sites common to pp1a and pp1ab.
  205. (2009). Proteasemediated entry via the endosome of human coronavirus 229E.
  206. (1992). Protective effects of a live attenuated SIV vaccine with a deletion in the nef gene.
  207. (1997). Protein interactions during coronavirus assembly.
  208. (2008). Protein phosphatase 2A and rapamycin regulate the nuclear localization and activity of the transcription factor GLI3.
  209. (1997). Protein phosphatase 2A is a critical regulator of protein kinase C zeta signaling targeted by SV40 small t to promote cell growth and NF-kappaB activation.
  210. (2008). Proteomics analysis unravels the functional repertoire of coronavirus nonstructural protein 3.
  211. (1999). Rapid dephosphorylation of p107 following UV irradiation.
  212. (1991). Receptor for mouse hepatitis virus is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen family of glycoproteins.
  213. (2003). Recombinant avian infectious bronchitis virus expressing a heterologous spike gene demonstrates that the spike protein is a determinant of cell tropism.
  214. (2000). Recombinant respiratory syncytial viruses with deletions in the NS1, NS2, SH, and M2-2 genes are attenuated in vitro and in vivo.
  215. (2007). Replicase genes of murine coronavirus strains A59 and JHM are interchangeable: differences in pathogenesis map to the 3' one-third of the genome.
  216. (1994). Requirement of the 5'-end genomic sequence as an upstream cis-acting element for coronavirus subgenomic mRNA transcription.
  217. (2002). Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nonstructural (NS) proteins as host range determinants: a chimeric bovine RSV with NS genes from human RSV is attenuated in interferon-competent bovine cells.
  218. (2007). Respiratory syncytial virus NS1 protein degrades STAT2 by using the Elongin-Cullin E3 ligase.
  219. (2000). Respiratory syncytial virus that lacks open reading frame 2 of the M2 gene (M2-2) has altered growth characteristics and is attenuated in rodents.
  220. (2001). Reverse genetics system for the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus.
  221. (1978). Ribonucleoprotein-like structures from coronavirus particles.
  222. (2002). RNA replication of mouse hepatitis virus takes place at double-membrane vesicles.
  223. (2007). Role of endocytosis and low pH in murine hepatitis virus strain A59 cell entry.
  224. (1992). Role of vif in replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in CD4+ T lymphocytes.
  225. (2006). SARS coronavirus 7a protein blocks cell cycle progression at G0/G1 phase via the cyclin D3/pRb pathway.
  226. (2004). SARS coronavirus E protein forms cation-selective ion channels.
  227. (2008). SARS-coronavirus replication/transcription complexes are membrane-protected and need a host factor for activity in vitro.
  228. (2007). SARS-CoV accessory protein 7a directly interacts with human LFA-1.
  229. (2008). SARScoronavirus replication is supported by a reticulovesicular network of modified endoplasmic reticulum.
  230. (1998). Sendai virus C proteins are categorically nonessential gene products but silencing their expression severely impairs viral replication and pathogenesis.
  231. (2000). Separate domains in GCN1 for binding protein kinase GCN2 and ribosomes are required for GCN2 activation in amino acid-starved cells.
  232. (1997). Sequence analysis of gene 3, gene 4 and gene 5 of avian infectious bronchitis virus strain CU-T2.
  233. (2007). Sequence changes of infectious bronchitis virus isolates in the 3' 7.3 kb of the genome after attenuating passage in embryonated eggs.
  234. (2004). Sequence motifs involved in the regulation of discontinuous coronavirus subgenomic RNA synthesis.
  235. (1984). Sequential development of humoral immunity and assessment of protection in chickens following vaccination and challenge with avian infectious bronchitis virus.
  236. (2008). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 3a protein activates the mitochondrial death pathway through p38 MAP kinase activation.
  237. (2005). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 3a protein is a viral structural protein.
  238. (2006). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 7a accessory protein is a viral structural protein.
  239. (2007). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus accessory protein 6 is a virion-associated protein and is released from 6 protein-expressing cells.
  240. (2007). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus gene 7 products contribute to virus-induced apoptosis.
  241. (2006). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nsp1 protein suppresses host gene expression by promoting host mRNA degradation.
  242. (2007). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus Orf3a protein interacts with caveolin.
  243. (2007). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus ORF6 antagonizes STAT1 function by sequestering nuclear import factors on the rough endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi membrane.
  244. (2007). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus protein 6 accelerates murine coronavirus infections.
  245. (2006). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus protein 7a interacts with hSGT.
  246. (2009). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus triggers apoptosis via protein kinase R but is resistant to its antiviral activity.
  247. (2006). Sialic acid is a receptor determinant for infection of cells by avian Infectious bronchitis virus.
  248. (2004). Significance of interactions between Escherichia coli and respiratory pathogens in layer hen flocks suffering from colibacillosisassociated mortality.
  249. (2000). Simian and human immunodeficiency virus Nef proteins use different surfaces to downregulate class I major histocompatibility complex antigen expression.
  250. (1994). Simian virus 40 small t antigen cooperates with mitogenactivated kinases to stimulate AP-1 activity.
  251. (2006). Solution structure of the X4 protein coded by the SARS related coronavirus reveals an immunoglobulin like fold and suggests a binding activity to integrin I domains.
  252. (1987). Sorting of progeny coronavirus from condensed secretory proteins at the exit from the trans-Golgi network of AtT20 cells.
  253. (1988). Specific interaction between coronavirus leader RNA and nucleocapsid protein.
  254. (2005). Structural basis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus ADP-ribose-1''-phosphate dephosphorylation by a conserved domain of nsP3.
  255. (2005). Structure and intracellular targeting of the SARS-coronavirus Orf7a accessory protein.
  256. (1990). Structure and orientation of expressed bovine coronavirus hemagglutinin-esterase protein.
  257. (2005). Subcellular localization and membrane association of SARS-CoV 3a protein.
  258. (2005). Subcellular localization of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nucleocapsid protein.
  259. (2004). SUMO fusions and SUMO-specific protease for efficient expression and purification of proteins.
  260. (2004). Suppression of the induction of alpha, beta, and lambda interferons by the NS1 and NS2 proteins of human respiratory syncytial virus in human epithelial cells and macrophages [corrected].
  261. (2004). Supraphysiological nuclear export signals bind CRM1 independently of RanGTP and arrest at Nup358.
  262. (1999). Targeted recombination demonstrates that the spike gene of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus is a determinant of its enteric tropism and virulence.
  263. (2007). The 29-nucleotide deletion present in human but not in animal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses disrupts the functional expression of open reading frame 8.
  264. (2007). The 3a accessory protein of SARS coronavirus specifically interacts with the 5'UTR of its genomic RNA, Using a unique 75 amino acid interaction domain.
  265. (2005). The 3a protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus induces apoptosis in Vero E6 cells.
  266. (1987). The 5'-end sequence of the murine coronavirus genome: implications for multiple fusion sites in leader-primed transcription.
  267. (1992). The 9-kDa hydrophobic protein encoded at the 3' end of the porcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus genome is membraneassociated.
  268. (2006). The avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus undergoes direct low-pH-dependent fusion activation during entry into host cells.
  269. (1996). The B56 family of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulatory subunits encodes differentiation-induced phosphoproteins that target PP2A to both nucleus and cytoplasm.
  270. (2001). The coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus nucleoprotein localizes to the nucleolus.
  271. (2007). The coronavirus spike protein induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and upregulation of intracellular chemokine mRNA concentrations.
  272. (2006). The crystal structure of ORF-9b, a lipid binding protein from the SARS coronavirus.
  273. (2002). The cytoplasmic tail of infectious bronchitis virus E protein directs Golgi targeting.
  274. (1990). The E1 glycoprotein of an avian coronavirus is targeted to the cis Golgi complex.
  275. (2008). The eIF2alpha kinases inhibit vesicular stomatitis virus replication independently of eIF2alpha phosphorylation.
  276. (2003). The Genome sequence of the SARS-associated coronavirus.
  277. (2002). The group-specific murine coronavirus genes are not essential, but their deletion, by reverse genetics, is attenuating in the natural host.
  278. (2000). The human coronavirus 229E superfamily 1 helicase has RNA and DNA duplexunwinding activities with 5'-to-3' polarity.
  279. (1995). The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vpr gene arrests infected T cells in the G2 + M phase of the cell cycle.
  280. (1990). The human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific protein vpu is required for efficient virus maturation and release.
  281. (2009). The ion channel activity of the SARS-coronavirus 3a protein is linked to its pro-apoptotic function.
  282. (1995). The leader polypeptide of Theiler's virus is essential for neurovirulence but not for virus growth in BHK cells.
  283. (1999). The localization of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein to the nucleolus of infected cells and identification of a potential nucleolar localization signal sequence.
  284. (1999). The M2-2 protein of human respiratory syncytial virus is a regulatory factor involved in the balance between RNA replication and transcription.
  285. (1995). The molecular genetics of feline coronaviruses: comparative sequence analysis of the ORF7a/7b transcription unit of different biotypes.
  286. (2005). The nsp2 replicase proteins of murine hepatitis virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus are dispensable for viral replication.
  287. (1997). The Nterminal half of the influenza virus NS1 protein is sufficient for nuclear retention of mRNA and enhancement of viral mRNA translation.
  288. (2007). The ORF7b protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is expressed in virus-infected cells and incorporated into SARS-CoV particles.
  289. (1997). The paramyxovirus, Sendai virus, V protein encodes a luxury function required for viral pathogenesis.
  290. (1973). The pathogenesis of virulent and avirulent avian infectious bronchitis virus.
  291. (2005). The putative protein 6 of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus: expression and functional characterization.
  292. (2009). The replicase gene of avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus is a determinant of pathogenicity.
  293. (1972). The replication of infectious bronchitis virus in fowl trachea.
  294. (1981). The replication of murine coronaviruses in enucleated cells.
  295. (2007). The RNA binding domain of influenza A virus NS1 protein affects secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, and interferon in primary murine tracheal epithelial cells.
  296. (1991). The S2 subunit of the spike glycoprotein of bovine coronavirus mediates membrane fusion in insect cells.
  297. (2005). The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 3a is a novel structural protein.
  298. (2005). The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 3a protein up-regulates expression of fibrinogen in lung epithelial cells.
  299. (2004). The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus Nsp15 protein is an endoribonuclease that prefers manganese as a cofactor.
  300. (2003). The small envelope protein E is not essential for murine coronavirus replication.
  301. (2008). The spike protein of infectious bronchitis virus is retained intracellularly by a tyrosine motif.
  302. (2008). The transmembrane domain of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus ORF7b protein is necessary and sufficient for its retention in the Golgi complex.
  303. (1994). The Vpr protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 influences nuclear localization of viral nucleic acids in nondividing host cells.
  304. (2008). Topology and membrane anchoring of the coronavirus replication complex: not all hydrophobic domains of nsp3 and nsp6 are membrane spanning.
  305. (2000). Transient translocation and activation of protein phosphatase 2A during mast cell secretion.
  306. (2003). Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus gene 7 is not essential but influences in vivo virus replication and virulence.
  307. (2004). Ultrastructural characterization of SARS coronavirus.
  308. (2004). Vif overcomes the innate antiviral activity of APOBEC3G by promoting its degradation in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.
  309. (1981). Viral protein synthesis in mouse hepatitis virus strain A59-infected cells: effect of tunicamycin.
  310. (2005). Viroporin activity of murine hepatitis virus E protein.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.