Vegetable production in China is associated with high inputs of nitrogen, posing a risk of losses to the\ud environment. Organic matter mineralisation is a considerable source of nitrogen (N) which is hard to\ud quantify. In a two-year greenhouse cucumber experiment with different N treatments in North China,\ud non-observed pathways of the N cycle were estimated using the EU-Rotate_N simulation model.\ud EU-Rotate_N was calibrated against crop dry matter and soil moisture data to predict crop N uptake, soil\ud mineral N contents, N mineralisation and N loss. Crop N uptake (Modelling Efficiencies (ME) between\ud 0.80 and 0.92) and soil mineral N contents in different soil layers (ME between 0.24 and 0.74) were\ud satisfactorily simulated by the model for all N treatments except for the traditional N management. The\ud model predicted high N mineralisation rates and N leaching losses, suggesting that previously published\ud estimates of N leaching for these production systems strongly underestimated the mineralisation of N\ud from organic matter
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