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The thesis explores several topics, related to polynomial distribution functions\ud and their densities on [0,1]M, including polynomial copula functions and their\ud densities. The contribution of this work can be subdivided into two areas.\ud - Studying the characterization of the extreme sets of polynomial densities\ud and copulas, which is possible due to the Choquet theorem.\ud - Development of statistical methods that utilize the fact that the density\ud is polynomial (which may or may not be an extreme density).\ud With regard to the characterization of the extreme sets, we first establish\ud that in all dimensions the density of an extreme distribution function is an extreme\ud density. As a consequence, characterizing extreme distribution functions\ud is equivalent to characterizing extreme densities, which is easier analytically.\ud We provide the full constructive characterization of the Choquet-extreme polynomial\ud densities in the univariate case, prove several necessary and sufficient\ud conditions for the extremality of densities in arbitrary dimension, provide necessary\ud conditions for extreme polynomial copulas, and prove characterizing\ud duality relationships for polynomial copulas. We also introduce a special case\ud of reflexive polynomial copulas.\ud Most of the statistical methods we consider are restricted to the univariate\ud case. We explore ways to construct univariate densities by mixing the extreme\ud ones, propose non-parametric and ML estimators of polynomial densities. We\ud introduce a new procedure to calibrate the mixing distribution and propose\ud an extension of the standard method of moments to pinned density moment\ud matching. As an application of the multivariate polynomial copulas, we introduce\ud polynomial coupling and explore its application to convolution of coupled\ud random variables.\ud The introduction is followed by a summary of the contributions of this thesis\ud and the sections, dedicated first to the univariate case, then to the general\ud multivariate case, and then to polynomial copula densities. Each section first\ud presents the main results, followed by the literature review

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