Location of Repository

Supporting authoring of adaptive hypermedia

By Maurice Hendrix


It is well-known that students benefit from personalised attention. However, frequently\ud teachers are unable to provide this, most often due to time constraints. An Adaptive\ud Hypermedia (AH) system can offer a richer learning experience, by giving personalised\ud attention to students. The authoring process, however, is time consuming and cumbersome.\ud Our research explores the two main aspects to authoring of AH: authoring of content and\ud adaptive behaviour. The research proposes possible solutions, to overcome the hurdles\ud towards acceptance of AH in education.\ud Automation methods can help authors, for example, teachers could create linear lessons and\ud our prototype can add content alternatives for adaptation.\ud Creating adaptive behaviour is more complex. Rule-based systems, XML-based conditional\ud inclusion, Semantic Web reasoning and reusable, portable scripting in a programming\ud language have been proposed. These methods all require specialised knowledge. Hence\ud authoring of adaptive behaviour is difficult and teachers cannot be expected to create such\ud strategies. We investigate three ways to address this issue.\ud 1. Reusability: We investigate limitations regarding adaptation engines, which\ud influence the authoring and reuse of adaptation strategies. We propose a metalanguage,\ud as a supplement to the existing LAG adaptation language, showing how\ud it can overcome such limitations.\ud 2. Standardisation: There are no widely accepted standards for AH. The IMSLearning\ud Design (IMS-LD) specification has similar goals to Adaptive\ud Educational Hypermedia (AEH). Investigation shows that IMS-LD is more limited\ud in terms of adaptive behaviour, but the authoring process focuses more on learning\ud sequences and outcomes.\ud 3. Visualisation: Another way is to simplify the authoring process of strategies using\ud a visual tool. We define a reference model and a tool, the Conceptual Adaptation\ud Model (CAM) and GRAPPLE Authoring Tool (GAT), which allow specification\ud of an adaptive course in a graphical way. A key feature is the separation between\ud content, strategy and adaptive course, which increases reusability compared to\ud approaches that combine all factors in one model

Topics: QA76, LB
OAI identifier: oai:wrap.warwick.ac.uk:3725

Suggested articles



  1. (2009). A Case Study on Merging Strategies for Authoring QoE-based Adaptive Hypermedia,
  2. (2007). A dynamic assistance approach to support the development and modelling of adaptive learning scenarios based on educational standards,
  3. (2000). A Formal Approach to Personalisable, Adaptive HyperlinkBased Interaction,
  4. (2009). A Framework for Flexible User Profile Mashups,
  5. (2004). A Generic Adaptive Model, Adaptive Hypermedia, doi
  6. (2005). A Generic Language for Dynamic Adaptation, doi
  7. (2008). A meta level for LAG Adaptation Language re-use in education, doi
  8. (2004). A Mixed Approach to Modelling Learning Styles doi
  9. (2005). A QTI editor integrated into the netUniversité web portal using IMS LD, doi
  10. (2007). A qualitative and quantitative evaluation of Adaptive authoring of Adaptive Hypermedia, doi
  11. (2002). A Reference Architecture for Adaptive Hypermedia Applications, doi
  12. (2008). A Spiral Model for Adding Automatic Adaptive Authoring to Adaptive Hypermedia, doi
  13. (2006). A Step towards Commercial Adaptive Hypermedia, doi
  14. (2000). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives, Allyn and Bacon, complete edition,
  15. (2006). A Unified Approach to Adaptive Hypermedia Personalisation and Adaptive Service Composition, Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems (AH), doi
  16. A Web-based tutoring tool with mining facilities to improve learning and teaching,
  17. (2004). Accessing Web educational resources from mobile wireless devices: The Knowledge Sea approach, Mobile HCI workshop, doi
  18. (1991). Active Learning: Creating Excitement in the Classroom,
  19. (2005). Activity-Based Metadata for Semantic Desktop Search, doi
  20. (2004). ADAPT: Major design dimensions for educational adaptive hypermedia,
  21. (2007). Adaptation Languages as vehicles of explicit intelligence doi
  22. (2009). Adaptation languages for learning: doi
  23. (2007). Adaptation of Feedback in e-learning System at Individual and Group Level, Personalisation in E-Learning Environments at Individual and Group Level (PING), Workshop at User Modelling (UM),
  24. (2003). Adaptive Course Authoring: doi
  25. (2004). Adaptive Course Creation for All, doi
  26. (2006). Adaptive Educational Hypermedia Content Creation: A Web Service based Architecture, doi
  27. (2009). Adaptive Hypermedia Content Authoring using MOT3.0, doi
  28. Adaptive Hypermedia For All, http://aha.win.tue.nl, viewed 07/10/2009.
  29. (2001). Adaptive Hypermedia for All, WebNet Conference,
  30. (2004). Adaptive Hypermedia Services for E-Learning, Applying Adaptive Hypermedia Techniques to Service Oriented Environments at Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems (AH), doi
  31. (2001). Adaptive hypermedia, User Modeling and User Adapted Interaction, doi
  32. (1999). AHAM: A Dexter-based Reference Model for Adaptive Hypermedia, doi
  33. (2003). An Architecture for Candidacy
  34. (2002). An Architecture for Integrating Adaptive Hypermedia Services with Open Learning Environments,
  35. (2009). An extension to the ADL SCORM standard to support adaptivity: The t-learning case-study, doi
  36. (2010). An infrastructure for creating graphical indicators of the learner profile by mashing up different sources, doi
  37. (1998). An open Adaptive Hypermedia Architecture, doi
  38. (2002). Approximate tree embedding for querying xml data,
  39. (2002). Atreegrep: Approximate searching in unordered trees, doi
  40. (2008). Augmenting E-Learning
  41. (2006). Authoring Adaptive Hypermedia and IMS Learning Design: A Possible Understanding, doi
  42. (2006). Authoring Adaptive Learning Material on the Semantic Desktop, doi
  43. (2004). Authoring of Adaptive and Adaptable Educational Hypermedia: where are we now and where are we going?, Web Based Education (WBE),
  44. (2007). Authoring of Adaptive Sequencing for IMS-LD,
  45. (2006). Automatic and Manual Annotation Using Flexible Schemas for Adaptation on the Semantic Desktop, doi
  46. (2005). Automatic Authoring of Adaptive Educational Hypermedia, book chapter in Web-Based Intelligent e-Learning Systems: Technologies and Applications, doi
  47. (1990). Basics of qualitative research, Grounded theory procedures and techniques, doi
  48. (2009). Comparative Analysis of Adaptation in Adaptive Educational Hypermedia and IMS-Learning Design, doi
  49. (2005). Comparing Graphs and Trees for Adaptive Hypermedia Authoring,
  50. (2004). Content Packaging, doi
  51. (2008). Defining adaptation in a generic multi layer model: CAM: The GRAPPLE Conceptual Adaptation Model, doi
  52. (2009). Design and Development of an Authoring Tool for Pedagogical Relationship Types between
  53. (2007). Domain Modelling with Ontology: A Case Study, doi
  54. (2005). Dublin Core User guide,
  55. (2006). Eliciting Requirements for an Adaptive Decision Support System through Structured User Interviews,
  56. (2007). Empowering AEH Authors Using Data Mining Techniques, doi
  57. (2007). Evaluating Adaptive authoring of Adaptive Hypermedia, doi
  58. (2007). Evaluating the automatic and manual creation process of adaptive lessons, doi
  59. (2004). Evaluation of Adaptive Hypermedia Authoring Patterns during a Socrates Programme Class, doi
  60. (2004). Evaluation of APeLS - An Adaptive eLearning Service Based on the Multi-Model, Metadata-Driven Approach, Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems (AH), doi
  61. Frequently Asked Questions about the University's use of the Pattern Language, doi
  62. (2009). Generic Adaptation Language for describing Adaptive Hypermedia, Workshop on Dynamic and Adaptive Hypertext: Generic Frameworks, Approaches and Techniques,
  63. (2006). How is knowledge about the consumer of information being applied in the design and delivery of information products and services,
  64. (2007). How to represent adaptation in eLearning with doi
  65. http://beagle-project.org/Main_Page,
  66. http://Semantic Desktop, doi
  67. (2002). Implications of SCORM™ and emerging e-learning standards on engineering education,
  68. (2003). Integrating adaptive hypermedia techniques, World Wide Web Conference (WWW),
  69. (1999). InterBook: An Adaptive Tutoring System,
  70. (2009). LAG 2.0: Refining a reusable Adaptation Language and Improving on its doi
  71. (2006). Language-Driven Development of Videogames: doi
  72. (2003). LAOS: Layered WWW AHS Authoring Model and its corresponding Algebraic Operators, World Wide Web conference (WWW), Alternate Education track,
  73. (1988). Learning and teaching styles in engineering education, doi
  74. (2003). Learning Design, doi
  75. (2005). Learning Design: A handbook on modelling and delivering networked education and training, doi
  76. (1988). Lost In Hyperspace: Cognitive Mapping And Navigation In A Hypertext Environment., Hypertext: Theory in Practice,
  77. (2009). Making today's Learning Management Systems adaptive,
  78. (2005). Malleable Schemas, Workshop on the Web and Databases (WebDB),
  79. (2004). Mediating the Semantic Web, doi
  80. (2000). Multimedia for Learning: Methods and Development, Allyn and Bacon, third edition,
  81. (2001). Natural language processing and usermodeling: synergies and limitations, User Modeling and User Adapted Interaction 11(1-2), doi
  82. Object Constraint Language Specification, version 2.0, http://www.omg.org/technology/documents/formal/ocl.htm,
  83. (2005). Overview and outlook on the Semantic Desktop, Semantic Desktop, doi
  84. (2003). OWL Reasoning Examples,
  85. (2005). Patterns in Authoring of Adaptive Educational Hypermedia: A Taxonomy of Learning Styles, "Education Technology and Society",
  86. (2006). Personalised eLearning Development Environment,
  87. (2004). Personalised Learning: Building a New Relationship with Schools,
  88. (2009). Personalised Web Experiences: Seamless Adaptivity across Web Service Composition and Web Content, User Modeling, Adaptation, and Personalization (UMAP), doi
  89. (2010). Personalized Lifelong Learning EInfrastructures and Technologies for Lifelong Learning (ETLL), IGI Global, to appear, doi
  90. (2001). Personally tailored teaching doi
  91. (2003). Pluggable” user models for adaptive hypermedia doi
  92. (2004). Question and Test Interoperability, doi
  93. (2006). Representing adaptive eLearning strategies doi
  94. (2004). Resource Description Format, W3C Recommendation,http://www.w3.org/RDF/,
  95. (2008). Reuse Patterns in Adaptation Languages: Creating a meta-level for the LAG adaptation language, Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive web-based systems (AH), doi
  96. (2006). Semantically Enhanced Searching and Ranking on the Desktop, doi
  97. (2005). Semantically Rich Recommendations in Social Networks for Sharing, Exchanging and Ranking Semantic Context, International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC), doi
  98. (2004). SeRQL: An RDF Query and Transformation, doi
  99. Services for Remote Portlets (WSRP), doi
  100. (2004). Should We Be Using Learning Styles? What Research Has to Say to Practice, Learning and Skills Research Centre,
  101. (1991). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation, doi
  102. (2009). Social Reference Model for Adaptive Web doi
  103. (2004). Step by step. How to install CopperCore, how to publish and run a UoL,
  104. (2009). Supporting self-regulated personalised learning through Competence-based Knowledge Space Theory, Policy Futures doi
  105. (2009). Supporting Virtual Reality in an Adaptive Web-based Learning Environment, doi
  106. (1996). SUS: a “quick and dirty”
  107. (2001). The ARIADNE Knowledge Pool System, doi
  108. (1994). The Dexter hypertext reference model: Hypermedia, doi
  109. The Learning Object Metadata (LOM) Specification, http://www.ieeeltsc.org/standards.OM,
  110. (2002). The Munich Reference Model for adaptive hypermedia applications, Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems (AH), doi
  111. (2004). The SCORM
  112. (2001). The Semantic Web, doi
  113. (2003). The three Layers of Adaptation Granularity, User Modelling (UM), doi
  114. (1989). The Z Notation, Prentice-Hall International,
  115. (1992). Theoretical Aspects of Schema Merging, Extending Database Technology, doi
  116. (2009). Towards a Conceptual and Service-Based Adaptation Model, Dynamic and Adaptive Hypertext: Generic Frameworks,
  117. (2004). Towards a Pattern Language doi
  118. (2007). Towards a Pattern Language Approach to Establishing Personal Authoring Environments in E-Learning., Web-based Education,
  119. (2008). Towards Adaptation Languages for Adaptive Collabora-tive Learning Support,
  120. (2004). Towards Reusable Adaptive Rules, Adaptive Hypermedia and Collaborative Web-based Systems (AHCW), doi
  121. Units of Learning developed by several authors at Learning Network for Learning Design of The Open University of The Netherlands, http://dspace.ou.nl, viewed 07/10/2009 .
  122. (2008). Using Visual Guidance and Feedback Based on Competence Structures for Personalising E-Learning
  123. (2004). W3C Recommendation,
  124. (2000). Web Modeling Language (WebML): a modeling language for designing Web sites, Web Engineering, doi
  125. (2004). Web Ontology Language (OWL) Overview, doi
  126. (2003). Web-Based Environment using Adapted Sequences of Programming Exercises, Information Systems Implementation and Modelling (ISIM),
  127. (2009). What Do Academic Users Really Want from an Adaptive Learning System, User Modeling, Adaptation, and Personalization (UMAP), doi
  128. (2006). What is IMS Vocabulary Definition Exchange,
  129. (2003). WHURLE - an adaptive remote learning framework,
  130. (1999). Workflow Management Coalition Terminology and Glossary, Workflow Management Coalition (WfMC), doi
  131. (2003). Workflow Patterns, Distributed and Parallel Databases, doi
  132. (2005). Writing MOT, Reading AHA! - converting between an authoring and a delivery system for adaptive educational hypermedia,
  133. (2001). XAHM: an XML-based Adaptive Hypermedia Model and its Implementation, doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.