Errors in chromosome segregation occurring during human oogenesis and early embryogenesis are very common. Meiotic chromosome development during oogenesis is subdivided into three distinct phases. The crucial events, including meiotic chromosome pairing and recombination, take place from around 11 weeks until birth. Oogenesis is then arrested until ovulation, when the first meiotic division takes place, with the second meiotic division not completed until after fertilization. It is generally accepted that most aneuploid fetal conditions, such as trisomy 21 Down syndrome, are due to maternal chromosome segregation errors. The underlying reasons are not yet fully understood. It is also clear that superimposed on the maternal meiotic chromosome segregation errors, there are a large number of mitotic errors taking place post-zygotically during the first few cell divisions in the embryo. In this chapter, we summarise current knowledge of errors in chromosome segregation during oogenesis and early embryogenesis, with special reference to the clinical implications for successful assisted reproduction. \u
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